From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration

The United States has just five percent of the world population yet holds approximately 25 percent of its prisoners.

The United States has just five percent of the world population yet holds approximately 25 percent of its prisoners.
The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

“The genius of the current caste system, and what most distinguishes it from its predecessors, is that it appears voluntary. People choose to commit crimes, and that’s why they are locked up or locked out, we are told. This feature makes the politics of responsibility particularly tempting, as it appears the system can be avoided with good behavior. But herein lies the trap. All people make mistakes. All of us are sinners. All of us are criminals. All of us violate the law at some point in our lives. In fact, if the worst thing you have ever done is speed ten miles over the speed limit on the freeway, you have put yourself and others at more risk of harm than someone smoking marijuana in the privacy of his or her living room. Yet there are people in the United States serving life sentences for first-time drug offenses, something virtually unheard of anywhere else in the world.”
― Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness

“We live in the most incarcerated country in the world. There are more black men under correctional control today than there were under slavery in 1850.”
― Singer John Legend

The United States has just five percent of the world population yet holds approximately 25 percent of its prisoners.

From the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade, slavery deprived the captive of legal rights and granted the master complete power. Millions of slaves in America were humiliated, beaten and killed while black families were torn apart.

Slavery was abolished in 1865 with the end of the Civil War and passing of the 13th Amendment, but America found what many see as a disingenuous way of continuing its slave master ways – mass incarceration.

The NAACP recently released statistics that revealed that, in 2014, African Americans constituted 2.3 million, or 34 percent, of the total 6.8 million correctional population.

African Americans are incarcerated at more than 5 times the rate of whites and the imprisonment rate for African American women is twice that of white women.

Nationwide, African American children represent 32 percent of children who are arrested, 42 percent of children who are detained, and 52 percent of children whose cases are judicially waived to criminal court.

Though African Americans and Hispanics make up approximately 32 percent of the US population, they comprised 56 percent of all incarcerated people in 2015.

If African Americans and Hispanics were incarcerated at the same rates as whites,
prison and jail populations would decline by almost 40 percent, according to the NAACP.

“Five hundred years after the transatlantic slave trade, the strife and hate that remains is largely due to miseducation. To date, there has not been an honest evaluation accepted by the general public about the true relationship between African people in America and the European settlers, typically referred to as just Americans,” said activist  and television personality Jay Morrison.

“This is one of the reasons that I wrote my book, ‘The Solution: How Africans in America Achieve Unity, Justice and Repair.’ In it, there is informative dialogue on the true experience of Africans in America during the enslavement era, the post enslavement era, and current day America – which I refer to as the mass incarceration era. Most Americans choose to live blindly and accept the political oppression, economic exploitation and social degradation of Africans in America,” Morrison said.

The longing by blacks for independence often threatens and offends many Americans and many people don’t believe in African Americans’ right to liberation and cannot fathom their desire to be in their true and original state, often leading to a fight, he said.

“I believe there is an opportunity in this millennial-led age to get past the hate if there is true atonement. Until America can take full responsibility for its past and correct what is still purposefully occurring – mass incarceration, the school-to-prison pipeline, unequal school systems, gentrification, police brutality – the tension will continue to exist,” Morrison said.

He continued:

“Until all people can be honest about our history and lack of repair, the hate will be hard to get past. These human rights violations against Africans in America must be treated with the same seriousness as other communities that have experienced similar imprisonment, oppression, exploitation and genocide. When that playing field is levelled, I imagine a greater peace in America.”

Added Je Hooper, of the American Ethical Union and the Brooklyn Society for Ethical Culture:

“The black, brown, and beige community continues to seek a remedy for their post-traumatic slave syndrome, particularly in a time of a socio-political climate that is fueled by discriminatory political rhetoric, violent sensationalized media, and disjointed cultural information.

“Our country has lived in a fear because of its own nationalist amnesia. I feel we must rise to the occasion for communities of color to unapologetically shine,” Hooper said.

In Montgomery, Alabama, attempts to educate Americans and others about the transatlantic slave trade and its ties to mass incarceration continue at The Legacy Museum: From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration, which has dedicated exhibits detailing the topic.

Opened on April 26, 2018, the 11,000-square-foot museum is built on the site of a former warehouse where enslaved black people were imprisoned and is located midway between an historic slave market and the main river dock and train station where tens of thousands of enslaved people were trafficked during the height of the domestic slave trade.

Montgomery’s proximity to the fertile Black Belt region, where slave-owners amassed large enslaved populations to work the rich soil, elevated Montgomery’s prominence in domestic trafficking, and by 1860, Montgomery was the capital of the domestic slave trade in Alabama, one of the two largest slave-owning states in America.

To justify the brutal, dehumanizing institution of slavery in America, its advocates created a narrative of racial difference, according to Bryan Stevenson, the founder and Executive Director of the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery.

Stereotypes and false characterizations of black people were disseminated to defend their permanent enslavement as “most necessary to the well-being of the negro” – an act of kindness that reinforced white supremacy, Stevenson said.

“The formal abolition of slavery did nothing to overcome the harmful ideas created to defend it, and so slavery did not end: it evolved,” he said.

In the decades that followed, these beliefs in racial hierarchy took new expression in convict leasing, lynching, and other forms of racial terrorism that forced the exodus of millions of black Americans to the North and West, where the narrative of racial difference manifested in urban ghettos and generational poverty.

Racial subordination was codified and enforced by violence in the era of Jim Crow and segregation, as the nation and its leaders allowed black people to be burdened, beaten, and marginalized throughout the 20th century, according to museum officials.

Progress towards civil rights for African Americans was made in the 1960s, but the myth of racial inferiority was not eradicated.

Black Americans were vulnerable to a new era of racial bias and abuse of power wielded by our contemporary criminal justice system.

Museum officials said mass incarceration has had devastating consequences for people of color, including that, at the dawn of the 21st century, one in three black boys was projected to go to jail or prison in his lifetime.

“Our nation’s history of racial injustice casts a shadow across the American landscape,” Stevenson said. “This shadow cannot be lifted until we shine the light of truth on the destructive violence that shaped our nation, traumatized people of color, and compromised our commitment to the rule of law and to equal justice.”

The the Equal Justice Initiative in Montgomery is committed to ending mass incarceration and excessive punishment in the United States, to challenging racial and economic injustice, and to protecting basic human rights for the most vulnerable people in American society, Stevenson said.

“I know the 13th Amendment provides the means for the criminal justice system to continue the practice of institutional slavery in the United States, for it is very clearly stated, ‘Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation,’” said Shawn Halifax, a cultural history interpretation coordinator at the Charleston County Park & Recreation Commission in Charleston, South Carolina.

“There is plenty of evidence, since its passage, that individual states and the United States have chosen to exercise the entirety of this amendment to the constitution and have manipulated the institution of criminal justice to make it happen,” Halifax said.

Source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/from-enslavement-to-mass-incarceration/


The Remarkable and Acclaimed Contemporary African Leader: Prof Brice Augustin SINSIN

HIGHLIGHTS
• Director, Laboratory of Applied Ecology
• Professor at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (FSA), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Benin Republic
• Ex Rector / Chancellor / President of the University of Abomey Calavi in Benin Republic (West Africa) (2012-2017)
• Publisher of more than 350 scientific papers
• Visiting Professor at many universities in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America
• Coordinator of more than 20 research-development projects
• Member of more than 25 international scientific groups such as IUCN-WCPA, World Agroforestry Center
• Supervisor of more than 60 PhD graduates and countless MS and BS Students
• Spearheaded the UAC Foundation, Volunteer Group of UAC and the UAC Startup Valley
• Chair, Tropical Ecology
• Reviewer of many journals including: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Plant Ecology Evolution
• Editor, Annals of Agronomic Sciences
• Founder of the Beninese Association of Pastoralism
• Board Member of many organizations (e.g. ICRISAT)

 

CONTACT  INFORMATION
01 B.P. 526 Cotonou, Benin
Cell: (229) 97 01 61 36
Fax: (229) 21 30 30 84
E-Mail: bsinsin@gmail.com 

brice.sinsin@fsa.uac.bj

Website: www.leabenin-fsauac.net

 

EDUCATION
• Ph.D., Free University of Brussels (Belgium), 1993, Major: Agronomy
• Agricultural Engineering Degree, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin), 1985, Major: Agronomy & Forestry
• High School Diploma, Major Mathematics and Physics (Diplôme du Baccalauréat Série Scientifique C), Lycée d’Abomey, Benin, 1980

 

SKILLS, EXPERTISE AND RESEARCH INTEREST
Agriculture, Agroforestry, Agronomy, Applied Ecology, Biodiversity & Conservation, Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring, Bush Fire Impact on Plant Life Forms, Climate Change Biology, Conservation – Restoration, Conservation Biology, Ecological Modeling, Ecological Restoration, Ecological Statistics, Ecosystem Ecology, Ecosystem Functioning, Endangered and useful species conservation, Ethnobotany, Forest Conservation, Forest Ecology, Forest Management, Landscape Ecology, Livestock, Management of Rangelands and of Protected Area, Natural Resource Management and Conservation, Nature Conservation, Non-Timber Forest Products Assessment, Plant Biodiversity and Conservation, Plant community ecology (Phytosociology), Plant Ecology and Phytosociology, Protected Area Management Assessment, Rangeland ecology, Restoration Ecology, Species Diversity, Tropical Ecology and Biology, Vegetation Ecology, Wildlife Census (ground and aerial census) and Conservation.

 

SELECTED GEOGRAPHICAL REGION OF EXPERIENCE
Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Central Africa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Togo, Uganda, etc.

 

EXPERIENCE IN RESEARCH

  • National research projects
  • EU research projects (SUN, DADOBAT, UNDESERT)
  • Bilateral projects: Belgium (CIUF, VLIR)
  • Germany (WV Stiftung; BIOTA)
  • Netherlands (Flore du Benin)
  • France (RIPESCA, VASA)
  • etc.

 

PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS
• Royal Botanical Society of Belgium
• Amicale Francophone de Phytosociologie
• Réseaux Parcours
• Association for the Taxonomic Study of the Flora of Tropical Africa
• Groupe de Recherche et d’Information sur la Pharmacopée et l’Environnement Tropical
• Society for Rangeland Management
• Ecological Society of America
• International Society for Tropical Ecology
• International Union for Conservation of Nature
• World Commission on Protected Areas
• Beninese Association of Pastoralism

 

SELECTED HONORS AND AWARDS
• Member, International Fulbright Prize Selection Committee
• Alumni, Fulbright Prize Award
• Grand Chancelier de l’Ordre National du Bénin (2010)
• Award, International Foundation for Science
• Vice-Chair for West and Central Africa, IUCN/WCPA
• Best Manager of the Year, International Socrates Committee (2013)
• Prix de bonne gouvernance, Réseau National des Associations de Promotion de la Bonne Gouvernance (Réseau Bénin Espoir ONG) (2013)
• RUFORUM IMPRESSA (Impact Research and Science in Africa) Award (2017)
• Award of Personal Achievement from the Chinese Government. Presented by the Vice President of China (2016)
• Etc.

 

SELECTED PROJECTS

Biota of the WAP complex – citizen science and online guides

 

Farmers’ Approaches of Agrobiodiversity Conservation in Benin and West Africa

 

NTFP and biodiversity conservation in Benin

 

Assessment of Ecological Patterns of Termitaria Vegetation

 

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security in West Africa

 

Socio-Economics of Agriculture Development in Africa

 

Preliminary DRIS model parameterization to access pineapple variety ‘Perola’ nutrient status in Benin (West Africa)

 

Pastoral resources management in northern Benin

 

Evolutionary ecology of the genus Guibourtia

 

UNDESERT (Understanding and combating desertification to mitigate its impact on ecosystem services)

 

SUN (Sustainable Use of Natural Vegetation in West Africa)

 

PUBLICATIONS

  1. Diversity and Current Spatial Distribution of Wild-Edible Fruit Trees Species in the Lama Forest Reserve in Benin
  2. Modelling the current and future distribution of Kigelia africana under climate change in Benin, West Africa
  3. Preliminary study on the tick population of Benin wildlife at the moment of its invasion by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick (Canestrini, 1888)
  4. Efficiency of conservation areas to protect orchid species in Benin, West Africa
  5. Knowledge, valuation and prioritization of 46 woody species for conservation in agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  6. Traditional ecological knowledge-based assessment of threatened woody species and their potential substitutes in the Atakora mountain chain, a threatened hotspot of biodiversity in Northwestern Benin, West Africa
  7. Spatial and temporal variation of black cotton soil organic carbon in Guinean forest zone in West Africa
  8. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Conserving the Highly Hunted Mammal Species as Bushmeat in Southern Benin
  9. Estimation of cultivable areas for Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu (Irvingiaceae) in Dahomey-Gap (West Africa)
  10. Mangroves in Benin, West Africa: threats, uses and conservation opportunities
  11. Landscape dynamics of the classified forest of Lama in Southern Benin
  12. Reproductive phenology of two Mimusops species in relation to climate, tree diameter and canopy position in Benin (West Africa)
  13. Application of site-specific biomass models to quantify spatial distribution of stocks and historical emissions from deforestation in a tropical forest ecosystem
  14. Mapping changes in land use/land cover and prediction of future extension of bowé in Benin, West Africa
  15. Ethnobotanical Survey of Mangrove Plant Species Used as Medicine from Ouidah to Grand-Popo Districts, Southern Benin
  16. EFFICACITÉ DES AIRES PROTÉGÉES DANS LA CONSERVATION D’HABITATS FAVORABLES PRIORITAIRES DE LIGNEUX DE VALEUR AU BÉNIN
  17. Effects of salinity on seedling emergence and early seedling growth of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae)
  18. Perceptions et attitudes des riverains à l’endroit de la forêt sacrée de Kpassè, Sud-Bénin
  19. Manuscrit perceptions et attitudes populations Forêt Sacrée Kpassè
  20. Topographic and edaphic factors determining Chromolaena odorata and Hyptis suaveolens invasion of grassland in the Guineo-Congolian / Sudanian transition zone (Benin)
  21. Assessing use, diversity and local conservation priorities of woody species within agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  22. Assessing use, diversity and local conservation priorities of woody species within agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  23. Local Knowledge on the Uses, Habitat, and Change in Abundance of Multipurpose Mimusops Species in Benin
  24. Medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera in southern Benin (West Africa)
  25. Potentiel de régénération des chantiers de production du charbon de bois au Centre-Bénin
  26. HABITATS AND UTILIZATIONS OF Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE : LOCAL PERCEPTION OF FOUR ETHNIC GROUPS FROM BENIN (WEST AFRICA)
  27. Sedentary yam-based cropping systems in West Africa: Benefits of the use of herbaceous cover-crop legumes and rotation—lessons and challenges
  28. DIVERSITE ET IMPORTANCE SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE DES SERVICES ECOSYSTEMIQUES DANS LA RESERVE DE BIOSPHERE DE LA PENDJARI AU NORD-BENIN
  29. Biota of the WAP complex – starting a citizen science project for West Africa’s largest complex of protected areas
  30. DISTRIBUTION OF HYRAX (MAMMALIA/HYRACOIDEA/PROCAVIIDAE) IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF BENIN.
  31. The Effect of Seasonal Variations, Covariations with Minerals and Forage Value on Itchgrass’ Foliar Silicification from Sudanian Benin
  32. Distribution du colobe vert olive ( Procolobus verus) au Bénin (Afrique) et menaces pesant sur sa conservation
  33. Isotopic niche structure of a mammalian herbivore assemblage from a West African savanna: Body mass and seasonality effect
  34. The Contribution of Termitaria to Plant Species Conservation in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin
  35. Impact of bark and foliage harvesting on fruit production of the multipurpose tree Afzelia africana in Burkina Faso (West Africa)
  36. Regional erosion risk mapping for decision support: A case study from West Africa
  37. Spatial and temporal analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop yields in Benin from 1987 to 2007
  38. Review of the higher education system in Benin: Status, challenges, opportunities and strategies for improvement
  39. Transhumance en République du Bénin : états des lieux et contraintes
  40. Specific and generic stem biomass and volume models of tree species in a West African tropical semi-deciduous forest
  41. APPROCHES MÉTHODOLOGIQUES SYNTHÉTISÉES DES ÉTUDES D’ETHNOBOTANIQUE QUANTITATIVE EN MILIEU TROPICAL
  42. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin
  43. Impacts of gravel extraction activities in southern Benin: Residents’ perception
  44. Effet du relief sur la régénération des espèces ligneuses en zone soudanienne du Bénin
  45. Genetic diversity of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa
  46. Transhumance en République du Bénin : états des lieux et contraintes Transhumance in Republic of Benin: state of art and constraints
  47. Knowledge of diversity of wild palms (Arecaceae) in the Republic of Benin: finding gaps in the national inventory by combining field and digital accessible knowledge
  48. Tree-ring: a suitable implement for spatial and temporal fire distribution analysis in savanna woodland and dry forest
  49. Dynamique de l’occupation du sol dans le Parc National du W et sa périphérie au nord-ouest du Bénin
  50. Habitat Use by White-Thighed Colobus in the Kikélé Sacred Forest: Activity Budget, Feeding Ecology and Selection of Sleeping Trees
  51. Etude de l’efficacité et de la tolérance d’une tisane à base de Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) cultivée au Bénin pour la prise en charge du paludisme simple
  52. Morphological variation, cultivation techniques and management practices of Moringa oleifera in Southern Benin (West Africa) International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
  53. Using species distribution models to select climate change resistant species for ecological restoration of bowé in West Africa
  54. Caractérisation des habitats de Dialium guineense (Willd) en République du Bénin
  55. Spatial distribution of bowal and differences in physicochemical characteristics between bowal and woodland soils in Benin, West Africa
  56. Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of Caesalpinia bonduc L. in West Africa International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
  57. Investigations of on farm seedling productivity of the rare and declining Caesalpinia bonduc in Benin (West Africa) by aid of simulation modelling
  58. Guibourtia Benn.: A high conservation value genus. A review
  59. Bowalization: Its Impact on Soil, Biodiversity, and Human Livelihoods in West Africa
  60. Effects of the relief on the regeneration of woody species in Benin’s Sudanian zone
  61. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa
  62. Ecological Factors Influencing Physical Soil Degradation in the Atacora Mountain Chain in Benin, West Africa
  63. Ethnobotanical Assessment of Moringa oleiferaLam. in Southern Benin (West Africa)
  64. Local perceptions of manifestation of climate change and adaptation measures in the management of soil fertility in the Municipality of Banikoara in North Benin
  65. GERMINATION OF SEEDS FROM EARLIER FRUITS OF BITTER AND SWEET AFRICAN BUSH MANGO TREES
  66. Vegetation characteristics of bowé in Benin (West Africa)
  67. Endogenous knowledge and human disturbance impact on abundance of two underutilized wild edible tree species in southern Benin
  68. Déforestation, savanisation et développement agricole des paysages de savanes-forêts dans la zone soudano-guinéenne du Bénin
  69. Biotechnology in Biodiversity Conservation: Overview of its Application for Conservation of Endangered African Tree Species
  70. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?
  71. Hunting affects dry season habitat selection by several bovid species in northern Benin
  72. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)
  73. Assessment of the medicinal uses of plant species found on termitaria in the Pendjari biosphere reserve in Benin
  74. Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa: Insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)
  75. How farmers perceive and cope with bowalization: A case study from West Africa
  76. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin
  77. Natural variation in fruit characteristics and seed germination of Jatropha curcas in Benin,West Africa
  78. Deforestation, transformation into savannah and agricultural development in the savannah and forest landscapes of Benin’s Sudano-Guinean zone
  79. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin
  80. PLANTES MELLIFERES ABRITANT LES COLONIES SAUVAGES D’ABEILLES ET IMPACTS DE LA CHASSE DE MIEL AU NORD-OUEST DU BENIN
  81. Modeling Solar Energy Transfer through Roof Material in Africa Sub-Saharan Regions
  82. Impact of climate change on the geographical distrubution of suitable areas for cultivation and conservation of underutilized fruit trees: Case study of the tamarind tree in Benin
  83. The projected impact of climate and land use change on plant diversity: An example from West Africa
  84. Do isolated gallery-forest trees facilitate recruitment of forest seedlings and saplings in savannna?
  85. Effect of inventory plot patterns in the floristic analysis of tropical woodland and dense forest
  86. Vigilance Efficiency and Behaviour of Bohor Reedbuck Redunca redunca (Pallas 1767) in a Savanna Environment of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Northern Benin)
  87. Change in the woody floristic composition, diversity and structure from protected to unprotected savannahs in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Benin, West Africa)
  88. How far bowalization affects phytodiversity, life forms and plant morphology in Sub-humid tropic in West Africa
  89. Evaluation of biomass production and nutritive value of nine Panicum maximum ecotypes in Central region of Benin
  90. Specific Richness and Cultural Importance of Wild Edible Trees in Benin
  91. Test of validity of a dynamic soil carbon model using data from leaf litter decomposition in a West African tropical forest
  92. Impact des feux de brousse sur la dynamique des communautés végétales dans la forêt de Bassila (Bénin)
  93. Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Benth. harvesting as a tool for conservation and source of income for local people in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve
  94. Étude de la diversité spécifique du groupement à Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich, des savanes arbustives du nord-Bénin
  95. Variation of Loranthaceae impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn. fruit yield in contrasting habitats and implications for its conservation
  96. National inventory and prioritization of crop wild relatives: Case study for Benin
  97. Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis of the Diets of West African Bovids in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Northern Benin
  98. ANALYSE GEOSTATISTIQUE DE LA REPARTITION DES CREVETTES PENAEIDAE DANS LE LAC NOKOUE A SO-AVA (BENIN)
  99. Capacité de germination de Dialium guineense willd (Fabaceae) une espèce Agroforestière
  100. How far a protected area contributes to conserve habitat species composition and population structure of endangered African tree species (Benin, West Africa)
  101. Biomass, root structure and morphological characteristics of the medicinal Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm) EA Bruce shrub across different ecologies in Benin
  102. Diversité et caractérisation morphologique des écotypes de l’espèce fourragère Panicum maximum au Bénin
  103. Environmentally induced variation in germination percentage and energy of naked caryopses of Loxodera ledermannii (Pilger) W.D. Clayton ex Launert in subhumid Benin (West Africa) 1
  104. Size of conducting phloem: The “key” factor for bark recovery of 12 tropical medicinal tree species
  105. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) : étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin
  106. Tree Plantation Will Not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin
  107. Land Use and Land-Cover Change at “W” Biosphere Reserve and Its Surroundings Areas in Benin Republic (West Africa)
  108. Wild Mammals Trade for Zootherapeutic and Mythic Purposes in Benin (West Africa): Capitalizing Species Involved, Provision Sources, and Implications for Conservation
  109. Change in the woody floristic composition, diversity and structure from protected to unprotected savannahs in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Benin, West Africa)
  110. Distribution of tree species along a gallery forest-savanna gradient: Patterns, overlaps and ecological thresholds
  111. Floristic and dendrometric analysis of woodlands in the Sudano-Guinean zone: A case study of Belléfoungou forest reserve in Benin
  112. Growth and Yield of Three Indigenous Vegetables (Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea L., Corchorus olitorius L.) Grown in Soil Supplemented with Poultry Manure
  113. Impact of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Brachiaria ruziziensis seeds in humid subtropical climates
  114. Decomposition and changes in chemical composition of leaf litter of five dominant tree species in a West African tropical forest
  115. CARACTÉRISATION SPATIALE DES CREVETTES PENAEIDAE DANS LE LAC NOKOUÉ A SO-AVA (BÉNIN)
  116. Les petites mares de la Réserve de Biosphère de la Pendjari (Bénin)
  117. Secondary succession and factors determining change in soil condition from fallow to savannah in the Sudanian Zone of Benin
  118. Which one comes first, the tamarind or the Macrotermes termitarium?
  119. A countrywide multi-ethnic assessment of local communities’ perception of climate change in Benin (West Africa)
  120. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) in the Southern Benin (West Africa)
  121. Process analysis in the coastal zone of Bénin through remote sensing and socio-economic surveys
  122. Local perception of ecosystem services provided by bats and bees and their conservation in Bénin, West Africa
  123. How Far Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) affects phytodiversity, productivity and pastoral value of Benin guinean pastures?
  124. The West African Vegetation Database
  125. Hemicryptophytes plant species as indicator of grassland state in semi-arid region: Case study of W Biosphere Reserve and its surroundings area in Benin (West Africa)
  126. Agronomic and economic performance of yam-based systems with shrubby and herbaceous legumes adapted by smallholders
  127. Analyses écologique et structurale de la forêt communautaire de Kaodji au Bénin
  128. Étude préliminaire de la faune ophidienne de la forêt classée de la Lama, Sud Bénin
  129. Magnoliophyta, Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, Atacora province, Benin
  130. Stem biomass and volume models of selected tropical tree species in West Africa
  131. Uses and management of black plum (Vitex doniana Sweet) in Southern Benin
  132. Land Use and Biodiversity in Unprotected Landscapes: The Case of Noncultivated Plant Use and Management by Rural Communities in Benin and Togo
  133. Caractérisation phyto-écologique de l’habitat du Tragelaphus spekei gratus (Sclater, 1864), sitatunga, dans la partie méridionale du Bénin
  134. Evaluation du potentiel ethnobotanique des populations rurales au Sud et au centre du Bénin
  135. Evaluating Yam-Based Cropping Systems Using Herbaceous Leguminous Plants in the Savannah Transitional Agroecological Zone of Benin
  136. Preliminary DRIS Model Parameterization to access groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) Nutrient Status in Benin (West Africa)
  137. Structure, ecological spectra and species dominance in riparian forests from Benin (West Africa)
  138. The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa – A standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring
  139. Genetic Evidence of the Contribution of Ethnic Migrations to the Propagation and Persistence of the Rare and Declining Scrambling Shrub Caesalpinia bonduc L
  140. Biodiversity and socioeconomic factors supporting farmers’ choice of wild edible trees in the agroforestry systems of Benin (West Africa)
  141. Preliminary study of snake fauna in the Lama forest, South Benin
  142. CROISSANCE MORPHOLOGIQUE DE CINQ ESSENCES LOCALES INTRODUITES DANS LES FORMATIONS FORESTIERES GUINEENNES ET SOUDANO-GUINEENNES AU BENIN
  143. EFFETS DES SOLS ET DU TAUX DE RECOUVREMENT SUR LA MORPHOLOGIE DES ESPECES INTRODUITES DANS LES GALERIES FORESTIERES EN ZONE SOUDANO – GUINEENNE AU BENIN
  144. Relation entre la production et la consommation des fruits cultivés sur le plateau d’Allada au sud du Benin
  145. Preliminary DRIS Model Parameterization to access groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) Nutrient status in Benin (West Africa)
  146. Genre et pauvreté chronique en milieu rural au Benin
  147. Poverty and Agroforestry Adoption: The Cases of Mucuna pruriens and Acacia auriculiformis in Godohou Village (Southern Benin)
  148. Conservation Status of the Red-bellied Guenon (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) in the Western Dahomey Gap in Southwestern Benin and the Adjacent Togodo Forest Reserve, South Togo
  149. Croyances Traditionnelles et Conservation du Colobe de Geoffroy, Colobus vellerosus (Geoffroy, 1834), dans la Forêt Sacrée de Kikélé, Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest)
  150. Effectiveness of conservation areas in protecting Shea trees against hemiparasitic plants (Loranthaceae) in Benin, West Africa
  151. Comportement alimentaire des taurillons Girolando sur deux types de pâturages cultivés en zone subéquatoriale
  152. Facteurs déterminant la variabilité spatiale de la biomasse herbacée dans la zone soudano-guinéenne du Bénin
  153. Germination et utilisation de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baillon) P.S.Herendeen & J.L.Zarucchi (Leguminosae-Caesalpiniaceae) dans l’aménagement anti-érosif des retenues d’hydraulique pastorale au Bénin
  154. Etude phytochimique des principales plantes galactogènes et emménagogues utilisées dans les terroirs riverains de la Zone cynégétique de la Pendjari
  155. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin
  156. Protection de la Nature en Afrique de l’Ouest: Une Liste Rouge pour le Bénin. Nature Conservation in West Africa: Red List for Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. ISBN 978 978 49796
  157. Human–carnivore conflict around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, northern Benin
  158. Vulnérabilité climatique et appropriation de ressources pastorales dans la vallée du Niger : entre adaptation et patrimonialisation de territoire
  159. Leaf silicification, covariations with minerals concentrations and forage value of three tropical miscellaneous species from sudanian Benin.
  160. Leaf silicification, covariations with minerals concentrations and forage value of three tropical miscellaneous species from sudanian Benin
  161. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst subsp birrea leaves from Benin
  162. Valuation of local preferred uses and traditional ecological knowledge in relation to three multipurpose tree species in Benin (West Africa)
  163. Caractérisation structurale des formations naturelles enrichies en essences forestières locales: cas des vertisols de la Lama (Benin)
  164. Influence des voisins sur le développement des espèces locales introduites dans les formations naturelles soudaniennes et guinéennes du Bénin
  165. Phenotypic variations in fruits and selection potential in Sclerocarya birrea subsp. birrea
  166. Modifications climatiques du sous-bois induites par les plantations d’essences exotiques : quel impact sur la diversite floristique locale ?
  167. Comparison of Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston and mineral fertilizer effect on maize grain (Zea mays L.) and Stover yields on ferralitic soils in southern Benin.
  168. Effet comparé de la fumure minérale et du fumier bovin sur une culture fourragère de Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Everard) en zone soudanienne du Bénin
  169. Caractéristiques structurelles et écologiques des phytocénoses de sous-bois des plantations privées de teck du département de l’Atlantique (Sus-Bénin, Afrique de l’Ouest)
  170. Caractérisation de l’agressivité des populations vis-à-vis du lamantin (Trichechus senegalensis) dans la zone côtière du Bénin
  171. Structural and ecological characteristics of the phytocenoses of private teak plantations in the Department of Atlantique (Southern Bénin, West Africa)
  172. Traditional agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation in Benin (West Africa)
  173. Analyse comparative des profils des Plans d’Aménagement Participatifs des forêts classées du Bénin
  174. Folk perception of sexual dimorphism, sex ratio, and spatial repartition: Implications for population dynamics of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich) Hochst] populations in Benin, West Africa
  175. Addressing data property rights concerns and providing incentives for collaborative data pooling: The West African Vegetation Database approach
  176. Ethnobotany of Pentadesma butyracea in Benin: A quantitative approach
  177. Geographical distribution, tree density and fruit production of Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) across three ecological regions in Benin
  178. Impact of past climatic and recent anthropogenic factors on wild yam genetic diversity
  179. Local knowledge, pattern and diversity of use of Sclerocarya birrea
  180. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally classified morphotypes of Tamarindus indica L. fruits
  181. Natural variation in fruit characteristics, seed germination and seedling growth of Adansonia digitata L. in Benin
  182. Comparative analyses of stakeholders’ perceptions of participatory forest management success in Benin
  183. Agro-pastoral dam use and management in relation to the presence of crocodiles in northern Bénin: technical and institutional constraints and opportunities
  184. Productivity of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes and short fallows in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin
  185. Etat de degradation de l’habitat de la giraffe (Giraffa camalopardalis peralta Linnaeus, 1758) au Niger
  186. Diversity, carrying capacity and pastoral value of natural grazing lands.
  187. Use of vegetation fires as tool in pastoral land management.
  188. Contingent Constraints of Soil Conservation Innovations: Case of Yam-Based Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Transition Zone of Benin
  189. Caractéristiques structurelles et écologiques des phytocénoses de sous-bois des plantations privées de teck du département de l’Atlantique (Sud-Bénin, Afrique de l’Ouest)
  190. Valeur alimentaire des fourrages consommés par les taurillons Borgou sur les parcours naturels du centre du Bénin
  191. Monitoring and Threat Assessment of the Spotted-Necked Otter (Lutra maculicollis) in Southern Benin Wetlands
  192. Impact of season, stem diameter and intensity of debarking on survival and bark re-growth pattern of medicinal tree species, Benin, West Africa
  193. Wound reaction after bark harvesting: Microscopic and macroscopic phenomena in ten medicinal tree species (Benin)
  194. Effectiveness of a protected areas network in the conservation of Tamarindus indica (Leguminosea–Caesalpinioideae) in Benin
  195. Community perception of biodiversity conservation within protected areas in Benin
  196. Women’s Traditional Knowledge, Use Value, and the Contribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) to Rural Households’ Cash Income in Benin
  197. Conservation Genetics of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in the Parklands Agroforestry Systems of Benin (West Africa)
  198. Etude comparative de la productivité de repousses et de la capacité de charge des hémicryptophytes soumises aux feux de végétation dans les parcelles irriguée et non irriguées dans la Réserve Transfrontalière de Biosphère (RTB) du W – Benin
  199. Disturbance and population structure of Vitex doniana Sw. in northern Benin, West Africa
  200. Distribution et statut de conservation du colobe de Geoffroy ( Colobus vellerosus ) au Bénin
  201. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes galactogènes et emménagogues utilisées dans les terroirs riverains à la Zone Cynégétique de la Pendjari
  202. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: Implications for domestication and conservation
  203. Exploitation des ressources naturelle et dynamique actuelle sur les versants du massif de l’atacora: Secteur perma – Toucountouna (Nord -Ouest Benin)
  204. Weed removal improves coppice growth of Daniellia oliveri and its use as fuelwood in traditional fallows in Benin
  205. Vegetation of West Africa
  206. Impact of habitat type on the conservation status of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) populations in the W National Park of Benin
  207. Variation in seed morphometric traits, germination and early seedling growth performances of Tamarindus indica L
  208. Description de Isoberlinia spp Caesalpiniaceae
  209. Afzelia africana Caesalpiniaceae
  210. The West African Vegetation Database: incentives for collaborative data pooling
  211. Effect of moisture stress on silica accumulation in three tropical grass species (Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum Jacq and P. maximum var. Orstom C1)
  212. Valeur pastorale, productivité et connaissances endogènes de l’effet de l’invasion, par Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit., des pâturages naturels en Zone soudano-guinéenne (Bénin)
  213. INVENTAIRE, CARACTÉRISATION ET MODE DE GESTION DE QUELQUES PRODUITS FORESTIERS NON LIGNEUX DU BASSIN VERSANT DE LA DONGA
  214. Diversité des amphibiens au Bénin : situation actuelle et futur
  215. Plant species and ecosystems with high conservation priority in Benin
  216. Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin
  217. Population structure and abundance of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst subsp. birrea in two contrasting land-use systems in Benin
  218. Evaluation écologique et ethnobotanique de Jatropha curcas L. au Bénin
  219. Structure of Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill., Perr. Natural stands in relation to anthropogenic pressure within Wari-Maro Forest Reserve in Benin
  220. Characterization of Afzelia africana Sm. habitat in the Lama Forest reserve of Benin
  221. Cartographie et caractérisation floristique de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli (Bénin)
  222. Mongoose species in southern Benin: Preliminary ecological survey and local community perceptions
  223. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb au Bénin
  224. Tests de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L. anamed sur différents substrats au Bénin
  225. Biological and phytogeographical analysis of plant communities infested by Chromolaena odorata and Hyptis suaveolens in the Betecoucou region (Benin) Analyse biologique et phytogéographique des savanes colonisées par Chromolaena odorata et Hyptis suaveolens dans la région d
  226. ECOSYSTEMES MARGINAUX ET RICHESSES FLORISTIQUES : LES CHAINONS DU MASSIF DE L’ATACORA, UN POTENTIEL A CONSERVER AU BENIN
  227. Semi-deciduous forest remnants in Benin: Patterns and floristic characterisation
  228. Approches de régénération artificielle de Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) Hutchison et Dalziel
  229. Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa
  230. Ethnic Differences in Use Value and Use Patterns of Baobab
  231. Sustainable use of non-timber forest products: Impact of fruit harvesting on Pentadesma butyracea regeneration and financial analysis of its products trade in Benin
  232. Recovery from bark harvesting of 12 medicinal tree species in Benin, West Africa
  233. Gestion pastorale et structure des terroirs agricoles dans la périphérie de la Djona (Nord-Est Bénin)
  234. Genetic fingerprinting using AFLP cannot distinguish traditionally classified baobab morphotypes
  235. Structural description of two Isoberlinia dominated vegetation types in the Wari–Maro Forest Reserve (Benin)
  236. STRUCTURE SPATIALE ET REGENERATION NATURELLE DE PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR EN ZONE SOUDANIENNE AU BENIN
  237. Structure spatiale et régénération naturelle de Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir en zone soudanienne au Bénin
  238. Twenty Years of Cooperation between Botanists of the Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany) and of West African Universities
  239. Utilisation and local knowledge of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) by the rural population around the W national park in Karimama District (Bénin)
  240. Diversity and ethnozoological study of smallmammals in villages of the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in northern Benin.
  241. The West African Vegetation Database
  242. Capacités Envahissantes de Deux Espèces Exotiques, Chromolaena Odorata (Asteraceae) et Hyptis Suaveolens (Lamiaceae), en Relation Avec L’Exploitation des Terres de la Région de Bétécoucou (Bénin)
  243. Critères et indicateurs de participation des populations locales à l’aménagement forestier au Bénin
  244. Invasiveness of two exotic species, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), in relation with land use around Bétécoucou (Bénin)
  245. Medicinal plant commercialization in Benin: An analysis of profit distribution equity across supply chain actors and its effect on the sustainable use of harvested species
  246. Distribution des espèces de primates au Bénin et ethnozoologie
  247. Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio-temporelle de l’occupation du sol dans la province du Bas-Congo (RDCongo)
  248. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge and Sustainable Forest Management in Africa IUFRO World Serives Volume 23 DIVERSITY AND ETHNOZOOLOGICAL STUDY OF SMALL MAMMALS IN VILLAGES OF THE PENDJARI BIOSPHERE RESERVE IN NORTHERN BENIN
  249. Population Genetics of the Cycad Encephalartos Barteri ssp. Barteri (Zamiaceae) in Benin with Notes on Leaflet Morphology and Implications for Conservation
  250. CARACTERISATION DENDROMETRIQUE ET SPATIALE DE TROIS ESSENCES LIGNEUSES MEDICINALES DANS LA FORET CLASSEE DE WARI-MARO AU BENIN
  251. Ecology and ethnozoology of the three-cusped pangolin Manis tricuspis (Mammalia, Pholidota) in the Lama forest reserve, Benin
  252. Folk Classification, Perception, and Preferences of Baobab Products in West Africa: Consequences for Species Conservation and Improvement
  253. Fruit selection and effects of seed handling by flying foxes on germination rates of shea trees, a key resource in Northern Benin, West Africa
  254. Inventory of bat species of Niaouli Forest, Bénin, and its bearing on the significance of the Dahomey Gap as a zoogeographic barrier
  255. Etude dendrométrique de Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. des formations naturelles de la zone soudanienne au Bénin
  256. Relationships between Human Pressure Gradient and Floristic Diversity in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin (Western Africa).
  257. Pauvreté chronique et pauvreté transitoire sur le plateau Adja au Bénin: Caractéristiques et influence sur la mise en œuvre des pratiques agricoles de conservation des terres
  258. Diversity of soil fertility management practices in sudanian zones of Benin (Western Africa).
  259. Dendrometrical Characterization of a Common Plant Species (Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr.) in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve and its Surrounding Land (Benin).
  260. Diet and food preference of the waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa) in the Pendjari National Park, Benin
  261. Notula Florae Beninsis, 13 – Biogeographical analysis of the vegetation in Benin
  262. Studies in African thelephoroid fungi: 1. Tomentella capitata and Tomentella brunneocystidia, two new species from Benin (West Africa) with capitate cystidia
  263. Land use impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaerten. stand structure and distribution patterns: A comparison of Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari in Atacora district in Benin
  264. Saproxylic beetle assemblages on native and exotic snags in a West African tropical forest
  265. The amphibians of the Lokoli Forest, a permanently inundated rainforest in the Dahomey Gap, Benin.
  266. Quelles aires protégées pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest ? Conservation de la biodiversité et développement
  267. Les aires protégées d’Afrique de l’Ouest, une identité en devenir ? = Protected areas of West Africa, an evolving identity ?
  268. Diversité, Caractérisation et Typologie opérationnelle des Exploitations Agricoles pour l’Amélioration des Pratiques de Gestion de la Fertilité des Sols en Zone Soudanienne du Bénin.
  269. Plans de mobilisation de la matière organique pour l’Amélioration de la Gestion de la Fertilité des Sols en Zone Soudanienne du Nord-Bénin.
  270. Les éléphants d’AlfaKoara au Bénin : cohabitation avec les populations riveraines de la Djona
  271. Ecoéthologie du porc épic (Hystrix cristata) et élaboration d’un référentiel pour son élevage en captivité
  272. Projet Biolama : conservation de la biodiversité de la forêt classée de la Lama (Bénin) : les arthropodes
  273. Le feu, outil de gestion des parcours naturels : expérimentations en zone soudano-guinéenne au Bénin
  274. Impact de l’immigration agricole autour des aires protégées : cas des villages riverains de la forêt classée de Wari-Maro (Bénin)
  275. Distribution des aires protégées et conservation de la flore en république du Bénin : Notulae Florae Beninensis 11
  276. L’hippopotame dans les zones humides du sud-Bénin
  277. Structure et composition floristique de la forêt classée de la Lama
  278. Mesures de conservation endogènes de la faune sauvage : cas des crocodiles du Bénin
  279. Influence de la mise en oeuvre des pratiques agricoles de conservation sur le bien-être des ménages ruraux du plateau Adja au bénin
  280. Résultats Préliminaires de l’Analyse Evolutive de la Zone Côtière du Bénin: Cas Spécifiques des Arrondissements de Avlékété et de Sèmè
  281. Effets de la dynamique d’occupation du sol sur la structure et la diversité floristique des forêts claires et savanes au Bénin
  282. Phytosociological and chorological approaches to phytogeography: A meso-scale study in Benin
  283. Effect of introduced exotic trees on the species diversity of the plant communities of their undergrowth Impact des espèces exotiques plantées sur la diversité spécifique des phytocénoses de leur sous-bois
  284. Données biologiques, éco-éthologiques et socio-économiques sur les groupes d’hippopotames (Hippopotamus amphibius) isolés dans les terroirs villageois en zones humides des départements du Mono et du Couffo au Sud-Bénin
  285. Effect of defoliation on silica accumulation in five tropical fodder grass species in Benin
  286. Patterns of Genetic and Morphometric Diversity in Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Populations Across Different Climatic Zones of Benin (West Africa)
  287. Dead wood and saproxylic beetle assemblages in a semi-deciduous forest in Southern Benin
  288. Arthropod diversity in Lama forest reserve (South Benin), a mosaic of natural, degraded and plantation forests
  289. Arthropod Diversity in Lama Forest Reserve (South Benin), a Mosaic of Natural, Degraded and Plantation Forests
  290. The amphibian fauna of Pendjari National Park and surroundings Northern Benin
  291. Importance of rodents as a human food source in Benin
  292. Termite assemblages in a West-African semi-deciduous forest and teak plantations
  293. Caractères morphologiques et production des capsules de Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) au Bénin
  294. Ecological diversity and pulp, seed and kernel production of the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in Benin
  295. Phytodiversity dynamics as an indicator for sustainable use in the West African Sahel and Sudanian Zone
  296. A stepwise Selection Technique Of The Most Discriminant Parameters of Two Groups Applied to Isoberlinia Stands in Benin
  297. Phytodiversity dynamics as an indicator for sustainable use in the West African Sahel and Sudanian Zone
  298. Leaf litter breakdown in natural and plantation forests of the Lama forest reserve in Benin
  299. Dendrometric characteristics as indicators of pressure of Afzelia africana Sm. dynamic changes in trees found in different climatic zones of Benin
  300. A phytosociological study of Riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)
  301. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in West Africa – 3. A case study: Changes in phytodiversity through human impact
  302. Conservation of biodiversity in a relic forest in Benin – an overview
  303. Connaissances ethnobotaniques et valorisation du baobab (Adansonia digitata) pour la sécurité alimentaire des populations rurales au Bénin
  304. Phytodiversity assessment in the West African Sudan Zone
  305. Riparian forests and biodiversity conservation in Benin (West Africa)
  306. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin
  307. Past and Present Distribution of the Red-Bellied Monkey Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster in Benin
  308. Diversité, structure et comportement des primates de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli au Bénin.
  309. Abundance and species richness of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park in Benin
  310. Diversité et productivité des champignons comestibles dans la forêt classée de Wari-Maro au Bénin (Afrique de l´Ouest)
  311. Analyse phytogéographique de la région des Monts Kouffé au Bénin
  312. Impact of bush fire on the dynamics of vegetation in Bassila forest (Benin)
  313. Ecology of elephant population (Loxodonta africana) in the Cynegetic Zone of Djona (Benin)
  314. Species diversity of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich. vegetation of shrub savannas in northern Benin
  315. Diversity of Medicinal Plants and Preliminary Parameterization of their Uses in Benin (Western Africa)
  316. Agronomic and Animal performances of tropical mixture fodder in sudanian zone of Benin.
  317. Les faciès à Andropogon pseudapricus des groupements post-culturaux et des savanes arbustives du Nord-Bénin: dissemblance floristique et caractères communs
  318. Les pâturages de saison sèche de la zone soudanienne du nord-Bénin
  319. Comparative analysis of local populations’ perceptions of socio-economic determinants of vegetation degradation in sudano-guinean area in Benin (West Africa)
  320. Problemes lies a la transhumance des animaux domestiques a travers les parcs nationaux
  321. Traditional Botanical Gardens as a Tool for Preserving Plant Diversity, Indigenous Knowledge and Last Threatened Relic Forest in Northern Benin

 

Learn more at:

www.BriceSinsin.com (Biography of Prof Brice Sinsin)

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brice_Sinsin

 

LAST UPDATED ON: SEPTEMBER 17, 2018

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Source: http://www.leabenin-fsauac.net/en/profiles/bricesinsin-en


Slavery Part IV: The Economic Engine of the New Nation

(Photo: iStockphoto / NNPA)

(Photo: iStockphoto / NNPA)

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.
(Read the entire series: Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5, Part 6Part 7Part 8Part 9, Part 10Part 11)

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Contributor
@StacyBrownMedia

“And America, too, is a delusion, the grandest one of all. The white race believes – believes with all its heart – that it is their right to take the land. To kill. Make war. Enslave their brothers. This nation shouldn’t exist, if there is any justice in the world, for its foundations are murder, theft, and cruelty. Yet here we are.” ― Colson Whitehead, The Underground Railroad

Once they reached the Americas, enslaved Africans were sold to the highest bidder at slave auctions and, once they had been purchased, slaves worked for nothing on plantations without any rights at all.

Often punished harshly, some slaves committed suicide, according to historians and pregnant women – many impregnated by their white slave masters – preferred abortion.

The historic accounts of the transatlantic slave trade, only worsen as they’re told.

From the earliest stages of the transatlantic slave trade 500 years ago and throughout that most ignominious period, many enslaved Africans tried to reduce the pace of their work by pretending to be ill, causing fires and by breaking tools, according to historians.

Though few were able to escape, most who attempted to flee were caught and beaten and some even murdered.

“Slavery is one of the foundational pillars of American society, propping up the nation starting in the earliest days of the Republic and touching the lives of everyone in America,” said Hasan Jeffries, a history professor at Ohio State University.

“And, its legacy has been long lasting,” said Jeffries who specializes in African American history and contemporary black history, which includes the institution of slavery and its effect on African Americans in the United States from the founding era through the Civil Rights movement and today.

“The deeply rooted belief in white supremacy that justified slavery survived its abolition in 1865 and undergird the new systems of African American labor exploitation and social control, namely Jim Crow, that sought to replace what had been lost as a result of emancipation,” Jeffries continued.

“Slavery may have ended in 1865, but a slaveholder mentality persisted, shaping the contours of American life for decades to come. This legacy of slavery is very much what African Americans have been fighting against from the moment of emancipation through the present.”

James Madison’s Montpelier, the home of the Father of the Constitution, an institution that examines slavery during the Founding Era and its impact today, recently commissioned a studythat examined how Americans perceive their Constitutional rights.

Research found that African Americans (65 percent) are less likely than whites (82 percent) to believe that their Constitutional rights are regularly upheld and respected.

The study also revealed that African Americans (62 percent) are more likely than whites (36 percent) to believe that civil rights is the most important Constitutional issue to the nation; findings that make it clear that race continues to play a major role in determining how Americans perceive Constitutional rights.

“Enslaved people were considered property during the Founding Era, therefore the Constitution’s declarations of ‘we the people’ and ‘justice’ excluded them, protecting one of the most oppressive institutions in history,” said Kat Imhoff, president and CEO of James Madison’s Montpelier.

“While the words ‘slave’ and, or, ‘slavery’ are never mentioned in the Constitution, they are referenced and codified in a variety of ways throughout the document,” Imhoff said.

“The founders compromised morality – many were recorded as being opposed to slavery, but on the other hand many were not – and power – in some cases, states bowed to slaveholding counterparts to ensure the Constitution would be ratified in the name of economics,” she said.

Imhoff continued:

“Slavery, when all was said and done, was incredibly profitable for white Americans – and not just in the South. It was the economic engine of the new nation. While Madison and his ideas remain powerful and relevant, they also stand in stark contrast to the captivity and abuse of Madison’s own slaves. At Montpelier, on the very grounds where Madison conceived ideas of rights and freedom, there lived hundreds of people whose freedom he denied.”

Indeed, Madison’s story is one of the first in the continuing journey of Americans who struggled to throw off bonds of oppression and exercise the fullness of what it means to be free, Imhoff added.

Working at James Madison’s Montpelier provides Imhoff and others a view of race and slavery’s legacy through the eyes of those who descended directly from the enslaved individuals who lived at Montpelier and other estates in the nearby Virginia area.

“As a leader of this cultural institution engaged in the interpretation of slavery, I believe to truly move forward, it is essential to engage the descendants to help us interpret slavery in real terms and illuminate their ancestors’ stories,” Imhoff said.

“Our country continues to grapple with the effects of slavery. Some of us feel it in deeply personal ways. Others only know of it historically or academically, as part of the distant, long-ago past.

“These differences make it all the more important to engage in worthwhile discussions with each other. We must have a more holistic conversation about freedom, equality and justice, and ensure we are inclusive of those people who it affects most readily.”

Source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/slavery-part-iv-the-economic-engine-of-the-new-nation


Le Celebre Brice Augustin SINSIN

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POINTS FORTS

  • Directeur du Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée
  • Ex Recteur de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi en République du Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest) (2012-2017)
  • Editeur de plus de 350 articles scientifiques
  • Professeur invité dans de nombreuses universités d’Afrique, d’Asie, d’Europe et d’Amérique du Nord
  • Coordinateur de plus de 20 projets de recherche-développement
  • Membre de plus de 25 groupes scientifiques internationaux tels que l’UICN-WCPA, World Agroforestry Centre
  • Superviseur / Promoteur de plus de 60 doctorants et d’innombrables étudiants en MS et BS
  • Père fondateur de la Fondation UAC, du Groupe de Bénévoles de l’UAC et l’UAC Startup Valley
  • Chaire d’Ecologie Tropicale
  • Evaluateur de nombreuses revues dont : Toxicologie Alimentaire et Chimique, Ecologie Végétale et Evolution, etc
  • Rédacteur en chef, Annales des Sciences Agronomiques
  • Fondateur de l’Association Béninoise de Pastoralisme
  • Membre du Conseil d’Administration de nombreuses organisations (par exemple, ICRISAT)

ADRESSE

01 B.P. 526 Cotonou, Benin
Cellulaire: (229) 97 01 61 36
Fax: (229) 21 30 30 84
E-Mail: bsinsin@gmail.com

brice.sinsin@fsa.uac.bj

Website: www.leabenin-fsauac.net

ÉDUCATION

  • Doctorat de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgique), 1993, Option: Agronomie
  • Diplôme d’Ingénieur Agronome de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi (Bénin), 1985, Option: Agronomie et Foresterie
  • Diplôme de Baccalauréat Série Scientifique C, Lycée d’Abomey, Bénin, 1980

COMPETENCES, EXPERTISE ET INTERET DE RECHERCHE

Agriculture, Agroforesterie, Agronomie, Ecologie appliquée, Biodiversité et Conservation, Evaluation et Surveillance de la Biodiversité, Impact des feux de brousse sur les Formes de vie des plantes, Biologie des Changements Climatiques, Conservation, Restauration, Biologie de la conservation, Modélisation écologique, Restauration écologique, Ecologie, Fonctionnement des écosystèmes, Conservation des espèces menacées et utiles, Ethnobotanique, Conservation des forêts, Écologie forestière, Gestion forestière, Écologie du paysage, Élevage, Gestion des parcours et des aires protégées, Gestion et conservation des ressources naturelles, Conservation de la nature, Évaluation des produits forestiers non ligneux, Biodiversité végétale et conservation, Ecologie des communautés végétales (phytosociologie), Ecologie végétale et phytosociologie, Evaluation de la gestion des aires protégées, Ecologie des parcours, Ecologie de la restauration, Diversité des espèces, Ecologie et biologie tropicales, Ecologie de la végétation, Recensement de la faune (recensement aérien et aérien) et Conservation.

REGIONS GEOGRAPHIQUES D’EXPÉRIENCE

Bénin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Cameroun, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritanie, Namibie, Niger, Nigéria, République Centrafricaine, Sénégal, Sierra Leone, Afrique du Sud, Togo, Ouganda, etc.

EXPERIENCES EN MATIERE DE PROJETS DE RECHERCHE

Projets de recherche nationaux

Projets de recherche de l’UE (SUN, DADOBAT, UNDESERT)

Projets bilatéraux: Belgique (CIUF, VLIR), Allemagne (WV Stiftung; BIOTA), Pays-Bas (Flore du Bénin), France (RIPESCA, VASA), etc. 

AFFILIATIONS PROFESSIONNELLES

  • Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique
  • Amicale Francophone de Phytosociologie
  • Réseaux Parcours
  • Association pour l’Etude Taxonomique de la Flore de l’Afrique Tropicale
  • Groupe de Recherche et d’Information sur la Pharmacopée et l’Environnement Tropical
  • Societé pour la Gestion des Parcours
  • Société Ecologique d’Amérique
  • Société Internationale d’Ecologie Tropicale
  • Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature
  • Commission Mondiale des Aires Protégées
  • Association Béninoise du Pastoralisme
  • Etc.

DISTINCTIONS REÇUES / HONNEURS ET RECOMPENSES

  • Membre du Comité de Sélection du Prix International Fulbright
  • Alumni, Prix Fulbright
  • Grand Chancelier de l’Ordre National du Bénin (2010)
  • Prix, Fondation Internationale pour la Science
  • Vice-Président pour l’Afrique Occidentale et Centrale, UICN / CMAP
  • Meilleur gestionnaire de l’année, Comité International Socrates (2013)
  • Réseau Bénin Espoir ONG (Réseau national des associations de promotion de la bonne gouvernance) (2013)
  • Prix RUFORUM IMPRESSA (Impact Research and Science in Africa) (2017)
  • Prix de Réalisation Personnelle du Gouvernement Chinois. Présenté par le Vice-Président de la Chine (2016)
  • Etc.

QUELQUES PROJETS

Biota du complexe WAP – Science Citoyenne et Guides en ligne

Approches Paysannes de la Conservation de l’Agrobiodiversité au Bénin et en Afrique de l’Ouest

Produits Forestiers Non Ligneux et Conservation de la Biodiversité au Bénin

Évaluation des Schémas Ecologiques de la Végétation de Termitaria

Adaptation basée sur l’Ecosystème pour la Sécurité Alimentaire en Afrique de l’Ouest

Socio-économie du Développement de l’Agriculture en Afrique

Paramétrage préliminaire du modèle DRIS pour l’accès au Statut Nutritionnel  de la variété d’ananas «Perola» au Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest)

Gestion des Ressources Pastorales dans le nord du Bénin

Écologie Evolutive du genre Guibourtia

UNDESERT (Comprendre et combattre la désertification pour atténuer son impact sur les services écosystémiques)

SUN (Utilisation durable de la végétation naturelle en Afrique de l’Ouest)

PUBLICATIONS

  1. Diversity and Current Spatial Distribution of Wild-Edible Fruit Trees Species in the Lama Forest Reserve in Benin
  2. Modelling the current and future distribution of Kigelia africana under climate change in Benin, West Africa
  3. Preliminary study on the tick population of Benin wildlife at the moment of its invasion by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick (Canestrini, 1888)
  4. Efficiency of conservation areas to protect orchid species in Benin, West Africa
  5. Knowledge, valuation and prioritization of 46 woody species for conservation in agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  6. Traditional ecological knowledge-based assessment of threatened woody species and their potential substitutes in the Atakora mountain chain, a threatened hotspot of biodiversity in Northwestern Benin, West Africa
  7. Spatial and temporal variation of black cotton soil organic carbon in Guinean forest zone in West Africa
  8. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Conserving the Highly Hunted Mammal Species as Bushmeat in Southern Benin
  9. Estimation of cultivable areas for Irvingia gabonensis and I. wombolu (Irvingiaceae) in Dahomey-Gap (West Africa)
  10. Mangroves in Benin, West Africa: threats, uses and conservation opportunities
  11. Landscape dynamics of the classified forest of Lama in Southern Benin
  12. Reproductive phenology of two Mimusops species in relation to climate, tree diameter and canopy position in Benin (West Africa)
  13. Application of site-specific biomass models to quantify spatial distribution of stocks and historical emissions from deforestation in a tropical forest ecosystem
  14. Mapping changes in land use/land cover and prediction of future extension of bowé in Benin, West Africa
  15. Ethnobotanical Survey of Mangrove Plant Species Used as Medicine from Ouidah to Grand-Popo Districts, Southern Benin
  16. EFFICACITÉ DES AIRES PROTÉGÉES DANS LA CONSERVATION D’HABITATS FAVORABLES PRIORITAIRES DE LIGNEUX DE VALEUR AU BÉNIN
  17. Effects of salinity on seedling emergence and early seedling growth of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae)
  18. Perceptions et attitudes des riverains à l’endroit de la forêt sacrée de Kpassè, Sud-Bénin
  19. Manuscrit perceptions et attitudes populations Forêt Sacrée Kpassè
  20. Topographic and edaphic factors determining Chromolaena odorata and Hyptis suaveolens invasion of grassland in the Guineo-Congolian / Sudanian transition zone (Benin)
  21. Assessing use, diversity and local conservation priorities of woody species within agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  22. Assessing use, diversity and local conservation priorities of woody species within agroforestry systems along Ouémé catchment in Benin (West Africa)
  23. Local Knowledge on the Uses, Habitat, and Change in Abundance of Multipurpose Mimusops Species in Benin
  24. Medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera in southern Benin (West Africa)
  25. Potentiel de régénération des chantiers de production du charbon de bois au Centre-Bénin
  26. HABITATS AND UTILIZATIONS OF Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE : LOCAL PERCEPTION OF FOUR ETHNIC GROUPS FROM BENIN (WEST AFRICA)
  27. Sedentary yam-based cropping systems in West Africa: Benefits of the use of herbaceous cover-crop legumes and rotation—lessons and challenges
  28. DIVERSITE ET IMPORTANCE SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE DES SERVICES ECOSYSTEMIQUES DANS LA RESERVE DE BIOSPHERE DE LA PENDJARI AU NORD-BENIN
  29. Biota of the WAP complex – starting a citizen science project for West Africa’s largest complex of protected areas
  30. DISTRIBUTION OF HYRAX (MAMMALIA/HYRACOIDEA/PROCAVIIDAE) IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF BENIN.
  31. The Effect of Seasonal Variations, Covariations with Minerals and Forage Value on Itchgrass’ Foliar Silicification from Sudanian Benin
  32. Distribution du colobe vert olive ( Procolobus verus) au Bénin (Afrique) et menaces pesant sur sa conservation
  33. Isotopic niche structure of a mammalian herbivore assemblage from a West African savanna: Body mass and seasonality effect
  34. The Contribution of Termitaria to Plant Species Conservation in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin
  35. Impact of bark and foliage harvesting on fruit production of the multipurpose tree Afzelia africana in Burkina Faso (West Africa)
  36. Regional erosion risk mapping for decision support: A case study from West Africa
  37. Spatial and temporal analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop yields in Benin from 1987 to 2007
  38. Review of the higher education system in Benin: Status, challenges, opportunities and strategies for improvement
  39. Transhumance en République du Bénin : états des lieux et contraintes
  40. Specific and generic stem biomass and volume models of tree species in a West African tropical semi-deciduous forest
  41. APPROCHES MÉTHODOLOGIQUES SYNTHÉTISÉES DES ÉTUDES D’ETHNOBOTANIQUE QUANTITATIVE EN MILIEU TROPICAL
  42. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin
  43. Impacts of gravel extraction activities in southern Benin: Residents’ perception
  44. Effet du relief sur la régénération des espèces ligneuses en zone soudanienne du Bénin
  45. Genetic diversity of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa
  46. Transhumance en République du Bénin : états des lieux et contraintes Transhumance in Republic of Benin: state of art and constraints
  47. Knowledge of diversity of wild palms (Arecaceae) in the Republic of Benin: finding gaps in the national inventory by combining field and digital accessible knowledge
  48. Tree-ring: a suitable implement for spatial and temporal fire distribution analysis in savanna woodland and dry forest
  49. Dynamique de l’occupation du sol dans le Parc National du W et sa périphérie au nord-ouest du Bénin
  50. Habitat Use by White-Thighed Colobus in the Kikélé Sacred Forest: Activity Budget, Feeding Ecology and Selection of Sleeping Trees
  51. Etude de l’efficacité et de la tolérance d’une tisane à base de Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) cultivée au Bénin pour la prise en charge du paludisme simple
  52. Morphological variation, cultivation techniques and management practices of Moringa oleifera in Southern Benin (West Africa) International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
  53. Using species distribution models to select climate change resistant species for ecological restoration of bowé in West Africa
  54. Caractérisation des habitats de Dialium guineense (Willd) en République du Bénin
  55. Spatial distribution of bowal and differences in physicochemical characteristics between bowal and woodland soils in Benin, West Africa
  56. Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of Caesalpinia bonduc L. in West Africa International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
  57. Investigations of on farm seedling productivity of the rare and declining Caesalpinia bonduc in Benin (West Africa) by aid of simulation modelling
  58. Guibourtia Benn.: A high conservation value genus. A review
  59. Bowalization: Its Impact on Soil, Biodiversity, and Human Livelihoods in West Africa
  60. Effects of the relief on the regeneration of woody species in Benin’s Sudanian zone
  61. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa
  62. Ecological Factors Influencing Physical Soil Degradation in the Atacora Mountain Chain in Benin, West Africa
  63. Ethnobotanical Assessment of Moringa oleiferaLam. in Southern Benin (West Africa)
  64. Local perceptions of manifestation of climate change and adaptation measures in the management of soil fertility in the Municipality of Banikoara in North Benin
  65. GERMINATION OF SEEDS FROM EARLIER FRUITS OF BITTER AND SWEET AFRICAN BUSH MANGO TREES
  66. Vegetation characteristics of bowé in Benin (West Africa)
  67. Endogenous knowledge and human disturbance impact on abundance of two underutilized wild edible tree species in southern Benin
  68. Déforestation, savanisation et développement agricole des paysages de savanes-forêts dans la zone soudano-guinéenne du Bénin
  69. Biotechnology in Biodiversity Conservation: Overview of its Application for Conservation of Endangered African Tree Species
  70. Does phenology distinguish bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae)?
  71. Hunting affects dry season habitat selection by several bovid species in northern Benin
  72. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)
  73. Assessment of the medicinal uses of plant species found on termitaria in the Pendjari biosphere reserve in Benin
  74. Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa: Insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)
  75. How farmers perceive and cope with bowalization: A case study from West Africa
  76. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin
  77. Natural variation in fruit characteristics and seed germination of Jatropha curcas in Benin,West Africa
  78. Deforestation, transformation into savannah and agricultural development in the savannah and forest landscapes of Benin’s Sudano-Guinean zone
  79. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin
  80. PLANTES MELLIFERES ABRITANT LES COLONIES SAUVAGES D’ABEILLES ET IMPACTS DE LA CHASSE DE MIEL AU NORD-OUEST DU BENIN
  81. Modeling Solar Energy Transfer through Roof Material in Africa Sub-Saharan Regions
  82. Impact of climate change on the geographical distrubution of suitable areas for cultivation and conservation of underutilized fruit trees: Case study of the tamarind tree in Benin
  83. The projected impact of climate and land use change on plant diversity: An example from West Africa
  84. Do isolated gallery-forest trees facilitate recruitment of forest seedlings and saplings in savannna?
  85. Effect of inventory plot patterns in the floristic analysis of tropical woodland and dense forest
  86. Vigilance Efficiency and Behaviour of Bohor Reedbuck Redunca redunca (Pallas 1767) in a Savanna Environment of Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Northern Benin)
  87. Change in the woody floristic composition, diversity and structure from protected to unprotected savannahs in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Benin, West Africa)
  88. How far bowalization affects phytodiversity, life forms and plant morphology in Sub-humid tropic in West Africa
  89. Evaluation of biomass production and nutritive value of nine Panicum maximum ecotypes in Central region of Benin
  90. Specific Richness and Cultural Importance of Wild Edible Trees in Benin
  91. Test of validity of a dynamic soil carbon model using data from leaf litter decomposition in a West African tropical forest
  92. Impact des feux de brousse sur la dynamique des communautés végétales dans la forêt de Bassila (Bénin)
  93. Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Benth. harvesting as a tool for conservation and source of income for local people in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve
  94. Étude de la diversité spécifique du groupement à Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich, des savanes arbustives du nord-Bénin
  95. Variation of Loranthaceae impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn. fruit yield in contrasting habitats and implications for its conservation
  96. National inventory and prioritization of crop wild relatives: Case study for Benin
  97. Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis of the Diets of West African Bovids in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Northern Benin
  98. ANALYSE GEOSTATISTIQUE DE LA REPARTITION DES CREVETTES PENAEIDAE DANS LE LAC NOKOUE A SO-AVA (BENIN)
  99. Capacité de germination de Dialium guineense willd (Fabaceae) une espèce Agroforestière
  100. How far a protected area contributes to conserve habitat species composition and population structure of endangered African tree species (Benin, West Africa)
  101. Biomass, root structure and morphological characteristics of the medicinal Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm) EA Bruce shrub across different ecologies in Benin
  102. Diversité et caractérisation morphologique des écotypes de l’espèce fourragère Panicum maximum au Bénin
  103. Environmentally induced variation in germination percentage and energy of naked caryopses of Loxodera ledermannii (Pilger) W.D. Clayton ex Launert in subhumid Benin (West Africa) 1
  104. Size of conducting phloem: The “key” factor for bark recovery of 12 tropical medicinal tree species
  105. Effets de lisière sur la productivité du teck (Tectona grandis L.f.) : étude de cas des teckeraies privées du Sud-Bénin
  106. Tree Plantation Will Not Compensate Natural Woody Vegetation Cover Loss in the Atlantic Department of Southern Benin
  107. Land Use and Land-Cover Change at “W” Biosphere Reserve and Its Surroundings Areas in Benin Republic (West Africa)
  108. Wild Mammals Trade for Zootherapeutic and Mythic Purposes in Benin (West Africa): Capitalizing Species Involved, Provision Sources, and Implications for Conservation
  109. Change in the woody floristic composition, diversity and structure from protected to unprotected savannahs in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Benin, West Africa)
  110. Distribution of tree species along a gallery forest-savanna gradient: Patterns, overlaps and ecological thresholds
  111. Floristic and dendrometric analysis of woodlands in the Sudano-Guinean zone: A case study of Belléfoungou forest reserve in Benin
  112. Growth and Yield of Three Indigenous Vegetables (Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea L., Corchorus olitorius L.) Grown in Soil Supplemented with Poultry Manure
  113. Impact of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Brachiaria ruziziensis seeds in humid subtropical climates
  114. Decomposition and changes in chemical composition of leaf litter of five dominant tree species in a West African tropical forest
  115. CARACTÉRISATION SPATIALE DES CREVETTES PENAEIDAE DANS LE LAC NOKOUÉ A SO-AVA (BÉNIN)
  116. Les petites mares de la Réserve de Biosphère de la Pendjari (Bénin)
  117. Secondary succession and factors determining change in soil condition from fallow to savannah in the Sudanian Zone of Benin
  118. Which one comes first, the tamarind or the Macrotermes termitarium?
  119. A countrywide multi-ethnic assessment of local communities’ perception of climate change in Benin (West Africa)
  120. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) in the Southern Benin (West Africa)
  121. Process analysis in the coastal zone of Bénin through remote sensing and socio-economic surveys
  122. Local perception of ecosystem services provided by bats and bees and their conservation in Bénin, West Africa
  123. How Far Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) affects phytodiversity, productivity and pastoral value of Benin guinean pastures?
  124. The West African Vegetation Database
  125. Hemicryptophytes plant species as indicator of grassland state in semi-arid region: Case study of W Biosphere Reserve and its surroundings area in Benin (West Africa)
  126. Agronomic and economic performance of yam-based systems with shrubby and herbaceous legumes adapted by smallholders
  127. Analyses écologique et structurale de la forêt communautaire de Kaodji au Bénin
  128. Étude préliminaire de la faune ophidienne de la forêt classée de la Lama, Sud Bénin
  129. Magnoliophyta, Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, Atacora province, Benin
  130. Stem biomass and volume models of selected tropical tree species in West Africa
  131. Uses and management of black plum (Vitex doniana Sweet) in Southern Benin
  132. Land Use and Biodiversity in Unprotected Landscapes: The Case of Noncultivated Plant Use and Management by Rural Communities in Benin and Togo
  133. Caractérisation phyto-écologique de l’habitat du Tragelaphus spekei gratus (Sclater, 1864), sitatunga, dans la partie méridionale du Bénin
  134. Evaluation du potentiel ethnobotanique des populations rurales au Sud et au centre du Bénin
  135. Evaluating Yam-Based Cropping Systems Using Herbaceous Leguminous Plants in the Savannah Transitional Agroecological Zone of Benin
  136. Preliminary DRIS Model Parameterization to access groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) Nutrient Status in Benin (West Africa)
  137. Structure, ecological spectra and species dominance in riparian forests from Benin (West Africa)
  138. The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa – A standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring
  139. Genetic Evidence of the Contribution of Ethnic Migrations to the Propagation and Persistence of the Rare and Declining Scrambling Shrub Caesalpinia bonduc L
  140. Biodiversity and socioeconomic factors supporting farmers’ choice of wild edible trees in the agroforestry systems of Benin (West Africa)
  141. Preliminary study of snake fauna in the Lama forest, South Benin
  142. CROISSANCE MORPHOLOGIQUE DE CINQ ESSENCES LOCALES INTRODUITES DANS LES FORMATIONS FORESTIERES GUINEENNES ET SOUDANO-GUINEENNES AU BENIN
  143. EFFETS DES SOLS ET DU TAUX DE RECOUVREMENT SUR LA MORPHOLOGIE DES ESPECES INTRODUITES DANS LES GALERIES FORESTIERES EN ZONE SOUDANO – GUINEENNE AU BENIN
  144. Relation entre la production et la consommation des fruits cultivés sur le plateau d’Allada au sud du Benin
  145. Preliminary DRIS Model Parameterization to access groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) Nutrient status in Benin (West Africa)
  146. Genre et pauvreté chronique en milieu rural au Benin
  147. Poverty and Agroforestry Adoption: The Cases of Mucuna pruriens and Acacia auriculiformis in Godohou Village (Southern Benin)
  148. Conservation Status of the Red-bellied Guenon (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) in the Western Dahomey Gap in Southwestern Benin and the Adjacent Togodo Forest Reserve, South Togo
  149. Croyances Traditionnelles et Conservation du Colobe de Geoffroy, Colobus vellerosus (Geoffroy, 1834), dans la Forêt Sacrée de Kikélé, Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest)
  150. Effectiveness of conservation areas in protecting Shea trees against hemiparasitic plants (Loranthaceae) in Benin, West Africa
  151. Comportement alimentaire des taurillons Girolando sur deux types de pâturages cultivés en zone subéquatoriale
  152. Facteurs déterminant la variabilité spatiale de la biomasse herbacée dans la zone soudano-guinéenne du Bénin
  153. Germination et utilisation de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baillon) P.S.Herendeen & J.L.Zarucchi (Leguminosae-Caesalpiniaceae) dans l’aménagement anti-érosif des retenues d’hydraulique pastorale au Bénin
  154. Etude phytochimique des principales plantes galactogènes et emménagogues utilisées dans les terroirs riverains de la Zone cynégétique de la Pendjari
  155. Firewood yield and profitability of a traditional Daniellia oliveri short-rotation coppice on fallow lands in Benin
  156. Protection de la Nature en Afrique de l’Ouest: Une Liste Rouge pour le Bénin. Nature Conservation in West Africa: Red List for Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. ISBN 978 978 49796
  157. Human–carnivore conflict around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, northern Benin
  158. Vulnérabilité climatique et appropriation de ressources pastorales dans la vallée du Niger : entre adaptation et patrimonialisation de territoire
  159. Leaf silicification, covariations with minerals concentrations and forage value of three tropical miscellaneous species from sudanian Benin.
  160. Leaf silicification, covariations with minerals concentrations and forage value of three tropical miscellaneous species from sudanian Benin
  161. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst subsp birrea leaves from Benin
  162. Valuation of local preferred uses and traditional ecological knowledge in relation to three multipurpose tree species in Benin (West Africa)
  163. Caractérisation structurale des formations naturelles enrichies en essences forestières locales: cas des vertisols de la Lama (Benin)
  164. Influence des voisins sur le développement des espèces locales introduites dans les formations naturelles soudaniennes et guinéennes du Bénin
  165. Phenotypic variations in fruits and selection potential in Sclerocarya birrea subsp. birrea
  166. Modifications climatiques du sous-bois induites par les plantations d’essences exotiques : quel impact sur la diversite floristique locale ?
  167. Comparison of Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alston and mineral fertilizer effect on maize grain (Zea mays L.) and Stover yields on ferralitic soils in southern Benin.
  168. Effet comparé de la fumure minérale et du fumier bovin sur une culture fourragère de Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Everard) en zone soudanienne du Bénin
  169. Caractéristiques structurelles et écologiques des phytocénoses de sous-bois des plantations privées de teck du département de l’Atlantique (Sus-Bénin, Afrique de l’Ouest)
  170. Caractérisation de l’agressivité des populations vis-à-vis du lamantin (Trichechus senegalensis) dans la zone côtière du Bénin
  171. Structural and ecological characteristics of the phytocenoses of private teak plantations in the Department of Atlantique (Southern Bénin, West Africa)
  172. Traditional agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation in Benin (West Africa)
  173. Analyse comparative des profils des Plans d’Aménagement Participatifs des forêts classées du Bénin
  174. Folk perception of sexual dimorphism, sex ratio, and spatial repartition: Implications for population dynamics of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich) Hochst] populations in Benin, West Africa
  175. Addressing data property rights concerns and providing incentives for collaborative data pooling: The West African Vegetation Database approach
  176. Ethnobotany of Pentadesma butyracea in Benin: A quantitative approach
  177. Geographical distribution, tree density and fruit production of Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) across three ecological regions in Benin
  178. Impact of past climatic and recent anthropogenic factors on wild yam genetic diversity
  179. Local knowledge, pattern and diversity of use of Sclerocarya birrea
  180. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally classified morphotypes of Tamarindus indica L. fruits
  181. Natural variation in fruit characteristics, seed germination and seedling growth of Adansonia digitata L. in Benin
  182. Comparative analyses of stakeholders’ perceptions of participatory forest management success in Benin
  183. Agro-pastoral dam use and management in relation to the presence of crocodiles in northern Bénin: technical and institutional constraints and opportunities
  184. Productivity of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes and short fallows in the Guinea-Sudan transition zone of Benin
  185. Etat de degradation de l’habitat de la giraffe (Giraffa camalopardalis peralta Linnaeus, 1758) au Niger
  186. Diversity, carrying capacity and pastoral value of natural grazing lands.
  187. Use of vegetation fires as tool in pastoral land management.
  188. Contingent Constraints of Soil Conservation Innovations: Case of Yam-Based Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Transition Zone of Benin
  189. Caractéristiques structurelles et écologiques des phytocénoses de sous-bois des plantations privées de teck du département de l’Atlantique (Sud-Bénin, Afrique de l’Ouest)
  190. Valeur alimentaire des fourrages consommés par les taurillons Borgou sur les parcours naturels du centre du Bénin
  191. Monitoring and Threat Assessment of the Spotted-Necked Otter (Lutra maculicollis) in Southern Benin Wetlands
  192. Impact of season, stem diameter and intensity of debarking on survival and bark re-growth pattern of medicinal tree species, Benin, West Africa
  193. Wound reaction after bark harvesting: Microscopic and macroscopic phenomena in ten medicinal tree species (Benin)
  194. Effectiveness of a protected areas network in the conservation of Tamarindus indica (Leguminosea–Caesalpinioideae) in Benin
  195. Community perception of biodiversity conservation within protected areas in Benin
  196. Women’s Traditional Knowledge, Use Value, and the Contribution of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) to Rural Households’ Cash Income in Benin
  197. Conservation Genetics of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in the Parklands Agroforestry Systems of Benin (West Africa)
  198. Etude comparative de la productivité de repousses et de la capacité de charge des hémicryptophytes soumises aux feux de végétation dans les parcelles irriguée et non irriguées dans la Réserve Transfrontalière de Biosphère (RTB) du W – Benin
  199. Disturbance and population structure of Vitex doniana Sw. in northern Benin, West Africa
  200. Distribution et statut de conservation du colobe de Geoffroy ( Colobus vellerosus ) au Bénin
  201. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes galactogènes et emménagogues utilisées dans les terroirs riverains à la Zone Cynégétique de la Pendjari
  202. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: Implications for domestication and conservation
  203. Exploitation des ressources naturelle et dynamique actuelle sur les versants du massif de l’atacora: Secteur perma – Toucountouna (Nord -Ouest Benin)
  204. Weed removal improves coppice growth of Daniellia oliveri and its use as fuelwood in traditional fallows in Benin
  205. Vegetation of West Africa
  206. Impact of habitat type on the conservation status of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) populations in the W National Park of Benin
  207. Variation in seed morphometric traits, germination and early seedling growth performances of Tamarindus indica L
  208. Description de Isoberlinia spp Caesalpiniaceae
  209. Afzelia africana Caesalpiniaceae
  210. The West African Vegetation Database: incentives for collaborative data pooling
  211. Effect of moisture stress on silica accumulation in three tropical grass species (Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum Jacq and P. maximum var. Orstom C1)
  212. Valeur pastorale, productivité et connaissances endogènes de l’effet de l’invasion, par Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit., des pâturages naturels en Zone soudano-guinéenne (Bénin)
  213. INVENTAIRE, CARACTÉRISATION ET MODE DE GESTION DE QUELQUES PRODUITS FORESTIERS NON LIGNEUX DU BASSIN VERSANT DE LA DONGA
  214. Diversité des amphibiens au Bénin : situation actuelle et futur
  215. Plant species and ecosystems with high conservation priority in Benin
  216. Estimating the Local Value of Non-Timber Forest Products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin
  217. Population structure and abundance of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst subsp. birrea in two contrasting land-use systems in Benin
  218. Evaluation écologique et ethnobotanique de Jatropha curcas L. au Bénin
  219. Structure of Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill., Perr. Natural stands in relation to anthropogenic pressure within Wari-Maro Forest Reserve in Benin
  220. Characterization of Afzelia africana Sm. habitat in the Lama Forest reserve of Benin
  221. Cartographie et caractérisation floristique de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli (Bénin)
  222. Mongoose species in southern Benin: Preliminary ecological survey and local community perceptions
  223. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb au Bénin
  224. Tests de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L. anamed sur différents substrats au Bénin
  225. Biological and phytogeographical analysis of plant communities infested by Chromolaena odorata and Hyptis suaveolens in the Betecoucou region (Benin) Analyse biologique et phytogéographique des savanes colonisées par Chromolaena odorata et Hyptis suaveolens dans la région d
  226. ECOSYSTEMES MARGINAUX ET RICHESSES FLORISTIQUES : LES CHAINONS DU MASSIF DE L’ATACORA, UN POTENTIEL A CONSERVER AU BENIN
  227. Semi-deciduous forest remnants in Benin: Patterns and floristic characterisation
  228. Approches de régénération artificielle de Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) Hutchison et Dalziel
  229. Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa
  230. Ethnic Differences in Use Value and Use Patterns of Baobab
  231. Sustainable use of non-timber forest products: Impact of fruit harvesting on Pentadesma butyracea regeneration and financial analysis of its products trade in Benin
  232. Recovery from bark harvesting of 12 medicinal tree species in Benin, West Africa
  233. Gestion pastorale et structure des terroirs agricoles dans la périphérie de la Djona (Nord-Est Bénin)
  234. Genetic fingerprinting using AFLP cannot distinguish traditionally classified baobab morphotypes
  235. Structural description of two Isoberlinia dominated vegetation types in the Wari–Maro Forest Reserve (Benin)
  236. STRUCTURE SPATIALE ET REGENERATION NATURELLE DE PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR EN ZONE SOUDANIENNE AU BENIN
  237. Structure spatiale et régénération naturelle de Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir en zone soudanienne au Bénin
  238. Twenty Years of Cooperation between Botanists of the Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany) and of West African Universities
  239. Utilisation and local knowledge of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) by the rural population around the W national park in Karimama District (Bénin)
  240. Diversity and ethnozoological study of smallmammals in villages of the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in northern Benin.
  241. The West African Vegetation Database
  242. Capacités Envahissantes de Deux Espèces Exotiques, Chromolaena Odorata (Asteraceae) et Hyptis Suaveolens (Lamiaceae), en Relation Avec L’Exploitation des Terres de la Région de Bétécoucou (Bénin)
  243. Critères et indicateurs de participation des populations locales à l’aménagement forestier au Bénin
  244. Invasiveness of two exotic species, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), in relation with land use around Bétécoucou (Bénin)
  245. Medicinal plant commercialization in Benin: An analysis of profit distribution equity across supply chain actors and its effect on the sustainable use of harvested species
  246. Distribution des espèces de primates au Bénin et ethnozoologie
  247. Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio-temporelle de l’occupation du sol dans la province du Bas-Congo (RDCongo)
  248. Traditional Forest-Related Knowledge and Sustainable Forest Management in Africa IUFRO World Serives Volume 23 DIVERSITY AND ETHNOZOOLOGICAL STUDY OF SMALL MAMMALS IN VILLAGES OF THE PENDJARI BIOSPHERE RESERVE IN NORTHERN BENIN
  249. Population Genetics of the Cycad Encephalartos Barteri ssp. Barteri (Zamiaceae) in Benin with Notes on Leaflet Morphology and Implications for Conservation
  250. CARACTERISATION DENDROMETRIQUE ET SPATIALE DE TROIS ESSENCES LIGNEUSES MEDICINALES DANS LA FORET CLASSEE DE WARI-MARO AU BENIN
  251. Ecology and ethnozoology of the three-cusped pangolin Manis tricuspis (Mammalia, Pholidota) in the Lama forest reserve, Benin
  252. Folk Classification, Perception, and Preferences of Baobab Products in West Africa: Consequences for Species Conservation and Improvement
  253. Fruit selection and effects of seed handling by flying foxes on germination rates of shea trees, a key resource in Northern Benin, West Africa
  254. Inventory of bat species of Niaouli Forest, Bénin, and its bearing on the significance of the Dahomey Gap as a zoogeographic barrier
  255. Etude dendrométrique de Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. des formations naturelles de la zone soudanienne au Bénin
  256. Relationships between Human Pressure Gradient and Floristic Diversity in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin (Western Africa).
  257. Pauvreté chronique et pauvreté transitoire sur le plateau Adja au Bénin: Caractéristiques et influence sur la mise en œuvre des pratiques agricoles de conservation des terres
  258. Diversity of soil fertility management practices in sudanian zones of Benin (Western Africa).
  259. Dendrometrical Characterization of a Common Plant Species (Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr.) in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve and its Surrounding Land (Benin).
  260. Diet and food preference of the waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa) in the Pendjari National Park, Benin
  261. Notula Florae Beninsis, 13 – Biogeographical analysis of the vegetation in Benin
  262. Studies in African thelephoroid fungi: 1. Tomentella capitata and Tomentella brunneocystidia, two new species from Benin (West Africa) with capitate cystidia
  263. Land use impact on Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaerten. stand structure and distribution patterns: A comparison of Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari in Atacora district in Benin
  264. Saproxylic beetle assemblages on native and exotic snags in a West African tropical forest
  265. The amphibians of the Lokoli Forest, a permanently inundated rainforest in the Dahomey Gap, Benin.
  266. Quelles aires protégées pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest ? Conservation de la biodiversité et développement
  267. Les aires protégées d’Afrique de l’Ouest, une identité en devenir ? = Protected areas of West Africa, an evolving identity ?
  268. Diversité, Caractérisation et Typologie opérationnelle des Exploitations Agricoles pour l’Amélioration des Pratiques de Gestion de la Fertilité des Sols en Zone Soudanienne du Bénin.
  269. Plans de mobilisation de la matière organique pour l’Amélioration de la Gestion de la Fertilité des Sols en Zone Soudanienne du Nord-Bénin.
  270. Les éléphants d’AlfaKoara au Bénin : cohabitation avec les populations riveraines de la Djona
  271. Ecoéthologie du porc épic (Hystrix cristata) et élaboration d’un référentiel pour son élevage en captivité
  272. Projet Biolama : conservation de la biodiversité de la forêt classée de la Lama (Bénin) : les arthropodes
  273. Le feu, outil de gestion des parcours naturels : expérimentations en zone soudano-guinéenne au Bénin
  274. Impact de l’immigration agricole autour des aires protégées : cas des villages riverains de la forêt classée de Wari-Maro (Bénin)
  275. Distribution des aires protégées et conservation de la flore en république du Bénin : Notulae Florae Beninensis 11
  276. L’hippopotame dans les zones humides du sud-Bénin
  277. Structure et composition floristique de la forêt classée de la Lama
  278. Mesures de conservation endogènes de la faune sauvage : cas des crocodiles du Bénin
  279. Influence de la mise en oeuvre des pratiques agricoles de conservation sur le bien-être des ménages ruraux du plateau Adja au bénin
  280. Résultats Préliminaires de l’Analyse Evolutive de la Zone Côtière du Bénin: Cas Spécifiques des Arrondissements de Avlékété et de Sèmè
  281. Effets de la dynamique d’occupation du sol sur la structure et la diversité floristique des forêts claires et savanes au Bénin
  282. Phytosociological and chorological approaches to phytogeography: A meso-scale study in Benin
  283. Effect of introduced exotic trees on the species diversity of the plant communities of their undergrowth Impact des espèces exotiques plantées sur la diversité spécifique des phytocénoses de leur sous-bois
  284. Données biologiques, éco-éthologiques et socio-économiques sur les groupes d’hippopotames (Hippopotamus amphibius) isolés dans les terroirs villageois en zones humides des départements du Mono et du Couffo au Sud-Bénin
  285. Effect of defoliation on silica accumulation in five tropical fodder grass species in Benin
  286. Patterns of Genetic and Morphometric Diversity in Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Populations Across Different Climatic Zones of Benin (West Africa)
  287. Dead wood and saproxylic beetle assemblages in a semi-deciduous forest in Southern Benin
  288. Arthropod diversity in Lama forest reserve (South Benin), a mosaic of natural, degraded and plantation forests
  289. Arthropod Diversity in Lama Forest Reserve (South Benin), a Mosaic of Natural, Degraded and Plantation Forests
  290. The amphibian fauna of Pendjari National Park and surroundings Northern Benin
  291. Importance of rodents as a human food source in Benin
  292. Termite assemblages in a West-African semi-deciduous forest and teak plantations
  293. Caractères morphologiques et production des capsules de Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) au Bénin
  294. Ecological diversity and pulp, seed and kernel production of the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in Benin
  295. Phytodiversity dynamics as an indicator for sustainable use in the West African Sahel and Sudanian Zone
  296. A stepwise Selection Technique Of The Most Discriminant Parameters of Two Groups Applied to Isoberlinia Stands in Benin
  297. Phytodiversity dynamics as an indicator for sustainable use in the West African Sahel and Sudanian Zone
  298. Leaf litter breakdown in natural and plantation forests of the Lama forest reserve in Benin
  299. Dendrometric characteristics as indicators of pressure of Afzelia africana Sm. dynamic changes in trees found in different climatic zones of Benin
  300. A phytosociological study of Riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)
  301. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in West Africa – 3. A case study: Changes in phytodiversity through human impact
  302. Conservation of biodiversity in a relic forest in Benin – an overview
  303. Connaissances ethnobotaniques et valorisation du baobab (Adansonia digitata) pour la sécurité alimentaire des populations rurales au Bénin
  304. Phytodiversity assessment in the West African Sudan Zone
  305. Riparian forests and biodiversity conservation in Benin (West Africa)
  306. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin
  307. Past and Present Distribution of the Red-Bellied Monkey Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster in Benin
  308. Diversité, structure et comportement des primates de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli au Bénin.
  309. Abundance and species richness of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park in Benin
  310. Diversité et productivité des champignons comestibles dans la forêt classée de Wari-Maro au Bénin (Afrique de l´Ouest)
  311. Analyse phytogéographique de la région des Monts Kouffé au Bénin
  312. Impact of bush fire on the dynamics of vegetation in Bassila forest (Benin)
  313. Ecology of elephant population (Loxodonta africana) in the Cynegetic Zone of Djona (Benin)
  314. Species diversity of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich. vegetation of shrub savannas in northern Benin
  315. Diversity of Medicinal Plants and Preliminary Parameterization of their Uses in Benin (Western Africa)
  316. Agronomic and Animal performances of tropical mixture fodder in sudanian zone of Benin.
  317. Les faciès à Andropogon pseudapricus des groupements post-culturaux et des savanes arbustives du Nord-Bénin: dissemblance floristique et caractères communs
  318. Les pâturages de saison sèche de la zone soudanienne du nord-Bénin
  319. Comparative analysis of local populations’ perceptions of socio-economic determinants of vegetation degradation in sudano-guinean area in Benin (West Africa)
  320. Problemes lies a la transhumance des animaux domestiques a travers les parcs nationaux
  321. Traditional Botanical Gardens as a Tool for Preserving Plant Diversity, Indigenous Knowledge and Last Threatened Relic Forest in Northern Benin

En savoir plus:

www.researchgate.net/profile/Brice_Sinsin

www.BriceSinsin.com (Biographie de Prof Brice Sinsin)

Date de la dernière mise à jour: 25 Septembre 2018


Arlington National Cemetery was once freed-slaves community called Freedman’s Village

During the emancipation, many former slaves migrated to Washington, D.C. because of the available jobs, primarily manual labor jobs such as building the Washington Monument.

RELATED: How the O Street Mansion in DC helped Rosa Parks

The city eventually became overcrowded, conditions steadily deteriorated and there was an outbreak of cholera. The government decided to quarantine the freed-slaves, put them all in one location and treat them together. The community went on to be known as Freedman’s Village.

Once Freedman’s Village was established, more freed-slaves started migrating to it and the town eventually had its own hospital, school, churches, post office, market, a home for senior citizens and more.

Flowers in Chania

William Syphax founded the school and made sure every child went to school and any adult that wanted to learn how to read or write could learn in Freedman’s Village.

The federal government eventually disbanded Freedman’s Village to make way for the national cemetery.

You can learn more about the history of the Freedman’s Village at the Arlington House below”

Source: By fox5dc.com staff , FEB 11 2019 11:37AM EST – http://www.fox5dc.com/news/black-history-month/arlington-national-cemetery-was-once-freed-slaves-community-called-freedman-s-village

Freedman’s Village

FRVI-18------ Freedman's Village 001 NO SOURCE
A Freedman’s Village, NPS

On April 16, 1862, Congress passed legislation freeing all slaves in the District of Columbia. Blacks from Virginia and elsewhere flocked to the city in search of work and shelter. Already struggling to meet the needs of their impoverished residents by the fall of 1862, the modest freedmen’s camps which the Government had erected in the city were overwhelmed after President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in the Confederate states January 1, 1863.[9] Overcrowding and steadily deteriorating conditions in the Washington camps drove military authorities to look to create a new camp for “contrabands,” outside of the city.[10]

Removed from Washington and occupied by the Union army since with start of the Civil War in 1861, Arlington emerged as a sensible choice for the new camp. On May 5, 1863, Lieutenant Colonel Elias M. Greene, chief quartermaster of the Department of Washington, and Danforth B. Nichols of the American Missionary Association officially selected the Arlington Estate as the site for Freedmen’s Village, which they intended to be a model community for freedpersons.

As Greene wrote to Major General S. P. Heintzelman in 1863, the creators believed that the open air would improve the health of the freedmen and have other benefits: “There is the decided advantage afforded to them of the salutary effects of good pure country air and a return to their former healthy avocations as field hands under much happier auspices than heretofore which must prove beneficial to them and will tend to prevent the increase of disease now present among them.”[11]

Within a few weeks, 100 former slaves settled on the chosen site, located about one half mile to the south of the Arlington mansion.[12] The following December, Freedmen’s Village was officially dedicated with a ceremony attended by members of Congress and other notables.

The symbolic power of transforming part of the Confederate General’s plantation estate into a community for freed slaves likely served as a motivation for Greene, Danforth and other Washington officials in charge of creating the village.[13] For many abolitionists and some in the Government, Robert E. Lee, as the leading Confederate General, came to personify slavery and unrealized freedom for millions of blacks in America. The use of his home as a camp for freedpersons was, thus, thought to be very appealing and appropriate by many in the north.

The local Republican press recognized that the location of Freedmen’s Village was no accident. Under the headline, “Gen. Lee’s Lands Appropriately Confiscated” the Washington, D.C. Morning Chronicle cheered:

General Robert E. Lee, who commands the army of rebels, is fighting to enslave the black man. To accomplish this hellish purpose, he kills the loyal soldiers of the nation, and attempts the destruction of the nation’s life. In view of this fact, a happy thought has occurred to the Secretary of War which it gives us pleasure to record….He ordered Col. Green to organize the Freeman’s Village… upon the Arlington estate.[14]

As it developed, the design and layout of the village were intended to create a climate of order, sobriety and industry, consistent with the War Department’s goal of making the former slaves self-sufficient.[15] An 1865 plan of the settlement shows a very organized community with over fifty residences, a hospital, kitchen/mess hall, school house, “old people’s home” and laundry, amongst other structures, neatly arranged around a central pond. As noted and illustrated in Harpers Weekly, many of these structures were already in place in the spring of 1864.

While the physical layout of the village may have developed in line with the ideas of the community’s creators, the nature of life at Freedmen’s Village proved to be a great departure from this vision. The War Department intended for the Village to be a temporary refuge where residents would be taught vocations and receive a basic education before leaving to find work elsewhere. Quickly, however, population boomed as residents became attached to the community.

The village turned into a semi-permanent settlement and the government developed facilities and infrastructure to support the several thousand residents.[16] Able adult tenants who did not have work elsewhere worked on the government farms which occupied the acreage surrounding the village at Arlington. In exchange for their work, the laborers were paid ten dollars per month, half of which they were required to pay to a general fund to maintain the village.[17]

Some residents came to resent the strict policies and rigid lifestyle which was enforced upon them by the Army and, later, the Bureau of Refugees, Freemen and Abandoned Lands, which took over administration of the village in 1865. The issue of property rents became a particularly divisive one. To help support the village, officials from the Freedmen’s Bureau imposed a rent on the tenants. Some freedpersons viewed this rent, which ranged from one to three dollars per month, as an unnecessary burden in their quest to gain self sufficiency and protested by refusing to pay the required sum.[18]

Rent collection became a serious problem as an inspector complained in his May 1866 report to General C.H. Howard, who oversaw the activities of the Freedmen’s Bureau at Arlington: “The directions from these Head Quarters requiring all parties renting land on the farm and occupying tenements at Freedman’s Village to pay their house rent monthly in accordance have not been obeyed. Twenty-three of these tenants live at the village but few of which have paid any rent though it was due from all the first of the current month.”[19] Despite difficulties rents became a constant of life in the village over time.

Tension over rents was only a precursor to other, more serious, issues which residents faced later. As early as 1868, the Federal Government attempted to close Freedmen’s Village. The movement to disband the village grew stronger in subsequent years as the property at Arlington became more and more desirable for development and public support for the freedmen’s community there waned. Utilizing their newly-acquired rights, the residents organized politically and successfully delayed disbanding efforts for a number of years.

Even by the late, 1880s when eviction was inevitable, the residents continued to fight, electing a committee to petition the Government regarding their unique situation. John Syphax, whose mother had been a slave at Arlington, was chosen to present the committee’s views to the Secretary of War.

In a letter to the Secretary in 1888, Syphax asserted that the freedpersons at Arlington should be compensated for the improvements which they had made to the property, and requested a settlement of $350 for each homeowner on the estate. He closed his letter with the following statement, simultaneously reflective of both the improved political rights afforded to African Americans following the Civil War and the gulf which still existed between black and white Americans: “Twenty-four years residence at Arlington, with all the elements involved in this case inspire the hope that full and ample justice will be done even to the weakest members of this great republic.”[20]

The Government would eventually compensate the residents $75,000—the appraised value of the dwellings on the property in 1868 and the contraband-fund tax which had been collected during the Civil War—in finally closing Freedmen’s Village in 1900.

In spite of the issues and challenges which faced residents, and the eventual closure of the village, living at Freedman’s Village was the first experience of a life out of bondage for thousands of African Americans, including a number of the former Custis slaves. Here, on the grounds of a plantation estate that had been built and maintained by the labor of enslaved blacks, residents began a new phase in their experience which they had a heightened measure of control over their lives. With legal rights and freedoms these people could, at least partially, determine their own destinies.

In that sense, the experience of the community’s residents, in finally realizing some of the promises of American freedoms while living at Arlington was an appropriate precursor to what the Arlington estate would become; a national memorial ground remembering the sacrifices of thousands who sacrificed tremendously to defend the very freedoms which the freedmen first experienced on the Arlington grounds.

References

[9] Joseph P. Reidy, “Coming form the Shadow of the Past: The Transition from Slavery to Freedom at Freedmen’s Village, 1863-1869,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 95, No. 4 (October 1987), 405-406.

[10] Camp Barker, the main camp for refugees in Washington, averaged 25 deaths per week in 1863, due primarily to outbreaks of disease such as scarlet fever, measles, and whooping cough. At Freedman’s Village, the mortality rate dropped considerably—to two per day. See Reidy, 407 and Roberta Schildt, “Freedman’s Village: Arlington, VA, 1863-1900,” The Arlington Historical Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 4, (October 1984), 15.

[11] Letter, Col. Elias M. Green to Major Gen. S.P. Heintzelman, May 5, 1863. National Archives, RG 92: Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General, Records Relating to Functions: Cemeterial, 1829-1929. General Correspondence and Reports Relating to National and Post Cemeteries (“Cemetery File”), 1865-c.1914. Arlington, VA. Box 7, NM-81, Entry 576.

[12]Schildt, 11.

[13] Commenting on this point, Joseph Reidy argues: “The irony of former slaves building a life of freedom on the Lee family’s property tasted sweet to Washington officials and northerners in general.” See Reidy, 417.

[14] Morning Chronicle, June 17, 1864.

[15]Reidy, 411.

[16] “‘We have a claim on this Estate,’ Arlington from Slavery to Freedom,” (Department of Interior, National Park Service, 2000), 7.

[17]Reidy, 411. See also, “We have a claim on this Estate…,” 8.

[18]Reidy, 413.

[19] Letter, M. Clark. to Gen. C.H. Howard, May 31, 1866. National Archives RG 92: M1055, Roll #6, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the District of Columbia, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1869, Letters Received, May-Oct. 1866, 14100-2419.

[20]Letter, John Syphax to Sec. W.C. Bodicott, Jan. 18, 1888. Copy printed in Freedmen’s Village: Arlington, Virginia, 1863-1900, (Arlington, VA:ArlingtonPublic Schools, 1983), 62-64. Original at National Archives.


From Slavery to Civil Rights and Environmental Racism

“There is simply no denying the difference in response to predominantly black compared to predominantly white communities” — Felicia Davis, founder & CEO of the HBCU Green Fund and sustainability director at Clark Atlanta University
“There is simply no denying the difference in response to predominantly black compared to predominantly white communities” — Felicia Davis, founder & CEO of the HBCU Green Fund and sustainability director at Clark Atlanta University

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

In addition to the millions of able-bodied individuals captured and transported, the death toll and the economic and environmental destruction resulting from wars and slave raids were startlingly high. In the famines that followed military actions, the old and very young were often killed or left to starve.

Forced marches of the captives over long distances claimed many lives. A large number of the enslaved were destined to remain in Africa – many were transported across the Sahara to the north – which heightened the impact of the slave trade on the continent. It is estimated that the population of Africa remained stagnant until the end of the nineteenth century.

Besides its demographic toll, the slave trade, and the Africans’ resistance to it, led to profound social and political changes. Social relations were restructured and traditional values were subverted. The slave trade resulted in the development of predatory regimes, as well as stagnation or regression.

Many communities relocated as far from the slavers’ route as possible. In the process, their technological and economic development was hindered as they devoted their energy to hiding and defending themselves.

The disruption was immense: the relationships between kingdoms, ethnic groups, religious communities, castes, rulers and subjects, peasants and soldiers, the enslaved and the free, were transformed. In some decentralized societies, people evolved new styles of leadership that led to more rigid, hierarchical structures, thought to better ensure protection.

In addition, European powers intervened in the political process to prevent the rise of the African centralized states that would have hampered their operations.

In the end, the slave trade left the continent underdeveloped, disorganized, and vulnerable to the next phase of European hegemony: colonialism. — Mahdi Adamu, From, “The Delivery of Slaves from the Bight of Benin in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,” in H.A. Gemery and J.S. Hogendorn,  “The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade,” others.

“Racism is still with us. But it is up to us to prepare our children for what they have to meet, and, hopefully, we shall overcome.” — Rosa Parks

“Racial discrimination is the deliberate targeting of ethnic and minority communities for exposure to toxic and hazardous waste sites and facilities, coupled with the systematic exclusion of minorities in environmental policy making, enforcement, and remediation.” — Dr. Benjamin F. Chavis Jr., 1981

WASHINGTON, DC – Decades ago, Civil Rights Leader Dr. Benjamin F. Chavis Jr., who now serves a president and CEO of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, coined the term, “environmental racism.”

It not only proved a true term, but it also linked several eras to a present day that still harkens back to centuries of demeaning and demoralization of Black Americans since the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade 500 years ago.

Once the slave trade ended, other oppressive eras ensued: The Antebellum Period; The Dred Scott Decision; The American Civil War; Jim Crow; Racial Terrorism; as did Jim; The Civil Rights Movement; and, throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Environmental Racism, which has kept an immovable wedge between African Americans and the rest of America.

In noting that Environmental Justice is an important part of the struggle to improve and maintain a clean and healthful environment – particularly for African Americans, who have traditionally lived, worked and played closest to the sources of pollution – Chavis said that environmentalracism is racial discrimination in environmental policy making and the unequal enforcement of the environmental laws and regulations.

“It is the deliberate targeting of people-of-color communities for toxic waste facilities and the official sanctioning of a life-threatening of poisons and pollutants in people-of-color communities,” he said. “It is also manifested in the history of excluding people of color from leadership in the environmental movement.”

With President Donald Trump castigating the science of global warming, it’s little wonder that today’s environmental policies not only target people of color when it comes to the placement and operation of unhealthy facilities, they also exclude people of color from being a part of the policy making process — even though they are the ones who are usually most directly negatively impacted by environmental injustices.

“The underlying message of environmentally racist tactics and strategies is that certain neighborhoods and certain people matter less than others, and that geographical vulnerability is inevitable, when in fact it is socially constructed to be this way,” said Dr. Deborah J. Cohan, an Associate Professor of Sociology in the Department of Social Sciences at the University of South Carolina Beaufort.

“The message is that some groups of people and some neighborhoods are okay to be dumped on and treated as garbage. After all, garbage is trash; it is what we’ve decided we no longer need or have any use for,” said Cohan, who also writes for Psychology Today and Teen Vogue.

Cohan continued:

“It’s what we wish to dispose of as we have decided it has no value. The problem with racism and society’s response to it is that we have failed to see this most basic thing: that in order to do that much damage to a community, one must so thoroughly objectify and dehumanize the people in it that they become things that can be discarded and forgotten about. People’s ability to thrive under these hostile conditions is greatly compromised.”

While many celebrated the end of Scott Pruitt’s time as head of the Environmental Protection Agency, others argued that his brief tenure could have a lasting impact on marginalized communities dealing with poor health, water contamination, or air pollution, because of environmental injustice.

And, Trump’s policies revealed that the president himself cares little if at all about environmental racism.

Studies have shown that black and Hispanic children are more likely to develop asthma than their white peers, as are poor children, with research suggesting that higher levels of smog and air pollution in communities of color is a factor. A 2014 study, as reported by VOX, found that people of color live in communities that have more nitrogen dioxide, a pollutant that exacerbates asthma.

The EPA’s own research further supported this. Earlier this year, a paper from the EPA’s National Center for Environmental Assessment found that when it comes to air pollutants that contribute to issues like heart and lung disease, blacks are exposed to 1.5 times more of the pollutant than whites, while Hispanics were exposed to about 1.2 times the amount of non-Hispanic whites. People in poverty had 1.3 times the exposure of those not in poverty. Even so, under Pruitt enforcement at the EPA has dropped considerably, with civil rights cases suffering in particular.

“Environmental racism is real. As documented in Richard Rothstein’s 2017 book, ‘The Color of Law,’ extensive federal, state and local government practices designed to create and maintain housing segregation also assured that polluting facilities like industrial plants, refineries, and more were located near Black, Latino and Asian American neighborhoods,” said Bruce Mirken, a spokesman for The Greenlining Institute, a public policy advocacy group in Oakland, Calif.

“Extensive data show that low-income communities of color still breathe the worst air and have excessive rates of pollution-related illnesses like asthma and other respiratory problems,” Mirken said. “These problems won’t fix themselves. …As we move away from oil, coal and gas to fight climate change, we must consciously bring clean energy resources and investment into communities that were for too long used as toxic dumping grounds. Here in California, The Greenlining Institute and allies have made considerable progress in designing our state’s climate policies to focus on underserved communities. Such efforts need to be increased and expanded nationwide.”

What’s more, a scan of environmental boards, C-suites, foundations, campaigns and funding, reveals a pronounced lack of diversity within the environmental movement that results in a white progressive world view that still values science and the physical landscape more than people — especially black and brown people — according to Felicia Davis, founder & CEO of the HBCU Green Fund and sustainability director at Clark Atlanta University.

“These communities are also less affluent and more likely to be located near, and experience, environmental hazards. Katrina and Flint exemplify environmental racism addressed by environmental justice advocates,” said Davis, who’s also the author of “Air of Injustice,” and serves on the boards of Green 2.0, The Chattahoochee River Keepers, and the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation.

Davis is also a U.S Representative for the global networking organization Gender CC – Women for Climate Justice, and has traveled internationally to participate in numerous United Nations World Conferences on Climate Change.

“There is simply no denying the difference in response to predominantly black compared to predominantly white communities,” Davis said.

“In spite of a growing focus on diversity, equity and inclusion, race remains an identifiable factor that impacts both access to opportunity, information and resources.  This is a subtle systemic challenge referred to as institutionalized racism and the outcome is limited investment in environmental justice organizations,” she said.

Davis continued:
“Since environmentalists are generally progressive, they sometimes target impacted communities under an environmental justice banner. Local or indigenous leadership is often under-valued with outsiders funded to address issues for or with impacted communities.  That this approach is not even considered inherently flawed is further evidence of how these communities are regarded.”

Chavis also noted Trump’s declaration that climate change isn’t real. “The same people in high political positions that deny the truth of the science about climate change are the same people who deny the factual history and current manifestations of racism,” Chavis said.

“Environmental racism is real as is climate change.”

Source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/from-slavery-to-civil-rights-and-environmental-racism/


US to cut aid to Cameroon due to alleged human rights violations

 (CNN)The US government has decided to cut millions in security and military aid to Cameroon amid growing concerns over the Cameroonian government’s human rights record, US officials tell CNN.
The officials said the US intends to “terminate” over $17 million in security aid, including funds for radars, four defender-class patrol boats, nine armored vehicles, training programs for C-130 airplanes and helicopters and the withdrawal of an offer for Cameroon to be a candidate for the State Partnership Program.
A planned US funded upgrade to a Cessna aircraft belonging to Cameroon’s elite Rapid Intervention Battalion has also been terminated. The battalion, which has been previously advised by US troops, has been accused of engaging in human rights abuses.
Some of the security assistance money had been put on hold by Congress due to those concerns.
During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing Thursday, Gen. Thomas Waldhauser, the commander of US Africa Command, said that while Cameroon has “been a good partner with us counterterrorism wise … You can’t neglect the fact that they have, there are alleged atrocities in what’s gone on there.”
Waldhauser said he and US Ambassador to Cameroon Peter Henry Barlerin in October “had a very direct conversation with (Cameroonian President Paul Biya) with regards to investigations of these atrocities, transparency of these atrocities, and appropriate battlefield behavior.”
“Since that time the State Department has made a decision not to allocate significant money but at the same time they’ve released some money that has been on hold to things like Scan Eagle and Cessna aircraft that assist in the Boko Haram fight in the North,” he said.
Last May, the US Ambassador gave a speech that accused pro-government Cameroonian security forces of conducting “targeted killings, detentions without access to legal support, family, or the Red Cross, and burning and looting of villages.”
Barlerin also accused Anglophone separatists of committing “murders of gendarmes, kidnapping of government officials, and burning of schools.”
The African nation has been beset by violence between the government, which is led by French speakers, and Anglophones who inhabit English-speaking regions of Cameroon.

“We continue to urge the Cameroonian government to take all credible allegations of gross violations of human rights seriously, investigate those allegations thoroughly, hold accountable the perpetrators of such abuses, and disclose the outcome of the investigations to the people of Cameroon,” a State Department official told CNN when asked about the termination of security assistance.

“We have informed the Cameroonian government that lack of progress and clarity about actions undertaken by the government in response to credible allegations of gross violations of human rights could result in a broader suspension of US assistance,” the State Department official said, adding that the US has “been assured by the government of Cameroon at the highest levels that US security assistance will not be diverted from other than its intended purpose.”
Another State Department official emphasized that “it is in Cameroon’s interest to show greater transparency in investigating credible allegations of gross violations of human rights abuses by security forces, particularly in the Northwest, Southwest, and Far North Regions.”
“The successes of the Cameroonian military — in part as a result of our training and equipment — have yielded long term and sustainable increases in Cameroon’s ability to defend its territory, its borders, and come to the aid of its neighbors, in particular northeast Nigeria and the Central African Republic,” the official said, adding that they “recognize the great cooperation we have had in the fight against Boko Haram and in restoring maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea.”
“For the time being, other programs will continue. We do not take these measures lightly, but we will not shirk from reducing assistance further if evolving conditions require it,” they said.
Waldhauser reiterated Thursday that there are ongoing programs with Cameroon — “all kind of small engagements as well as exercises.” One US official said those programs include education programs for Cameroonian officers focused on professionalization and peacekeeping as well as continuing to support “select counterterrorism and maritime security programs that have been evaluated to have low risk of diversion to the Anglophone region.”
The Pentagon has already withdrawn an offer for Cameroon to participate in its State Partnership Program, a “security cooperation program” that teams US state National Guards with host nation militaries. Originally the Defense Department had intended Cameroon to partner with the Nebraska National Guard. The US has 14 such partnerships with African countries, including Cameroon’s neighbor Nigeria.
The State Department is also seeking to have an additional $10 million that was placed on hold released to fund the sustainment of certain military equipment already in Cameroon’s possession such as Cessna airplanes, mud boats for patrolling Lake Chad, and Scan Eagle Drones.
The US has had hundreds of troops in Cameroon tasked with training, advising and assisting local forces in their fight against ISIS West Africa, Boko Haram and other violent extremist organizations in the Lake Chad Basin region.
US Africa Command launched an investigation last August to determine if US personnel were aware of allegations of torture of suspected terrorists being carried out by US-trained Cameroonian troops from the Rapid Intervention Battalion at a base that was also frequently used by US military advisers.
The results of that investigation were not made public but a US defense official tells CNN that the investigation “found that US military forces in Cameroon were not involved in or aware of human rights violations committed by Cameroonian forces.”
However, the official said the Defense Department and State Department “will assess the validity” of claims by Amnesty International that Cameroonian forces engaged in torture in a “separate investigation.”
Gen. Thomas Waldhauser, the commander of US Africa Command, is scheduled to testify Thursday before the Senate Armed Services Committee.
The Trump administration recently decided to cut the number of US troops in Africa engaged in counterterrorism with the bulk of those reductions expected to take place in West Africa.

Source: https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/06/politics/cameroon-security-assistance/index.html


Enough is Enough: Malawians storms S.A Embassy in LL for Bushiri as court gives him bail | Malawi 24

The protest in Lilongwe came as the court in South Africa was hearing his bail application following the arrest last week together with his wife, Mary on money laundering charges.

Mkwezalamba handing the petition to Paul Siljeur

The charismatic preacher and his wife were granted R100 000 bail each Wednesday morning at Pretoria Specialized Commercial Crimes Court.
Social media have been awash with reports that the arrest was politically motivated.

Malawians stormed the South African Embassy in Lilongwe demanding that Bushiri be freed and alleged that the arrest was motivated by greed people who were against the preacher.
Malawi Black Economic Empowerment (Mablem) Chairperson for Mablem Robert Mkwezalamba presented a petition today to South Africa Embassy in Lilongwe.

In the petition, Mablem demands justice for Bushiri during the court proceedings.

“We heard that Bushiri was asked to bribe numerous South Africa officials in police services in order to release him as such we want remind South Africa through its human rights commission that that was infringement of human rights.

“Bushiri as a citizen from another country deserve dignity and fair justice,” Mkwezalamba said.
The group also asked South Africa to allow other nationals develop economically whilst living in their countries.

Counselor on political affairs at the South African High Commission Paul Siljeur who received the petition said although the embassy is not in position to intervene on the issue they will follow progress of the case with keen interest.

Presentation of the petition followed a solidarity march which started at Parliament roundabout thereafter a vigil at South Africa High Commissioner premises.

People from the prophet’s church including pastors and many participants won T-shirts written “release Bushiri now” and carried Malawi flags in their hands.

Outside the Pretoria courts in South Africa, hundreds of his followers demanded that Bushiri speaks to them after he had been released but church authorities said it was impossible for the preacher to do so due to fear of a similar misfortune that ended up with three lives lost during their cross over service in December.

Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 e

Source: https://theworldnews.net/mw-news/enough-is-enough-malawians-storms-s-a-embassy-in-ll-for-bushiri-as-court-gives-him-bail-malawi-24


BLF, Mboro, ANC, EFF rally behind Bushiri

BLF leaders have slammed the arrest, branding it as a

BLF leaders have slammed the arrest, branding it as a “persecution of successful black businessman”.

Pretoria – The Black First Land First (BLF), the African National Congress, COSATU, and the Economic Freedom Fighters were among the many powerful organisations who had members and leaders present to support Prophet Bushiri as he appeared at the Specialised Commercial Crimes Court in Pretoria this morning in the capital

The BLF, have by far been the most vocal of all political outfits in the country since the prophet’s arrest last Friday.

BLF leaders have slammed the arrest, branding it as a “persecution of successful black businessman”.

Members of BLF drew parallels today, with how white people accused of corruption had been arrested in the morning of today, appeared in court the same day and released on bail immediately.

Several members of the ANC, EFF and other parties were present.

“I am not a member of the church. I am just a member of the ANC but i came because an innocent man is under attack”, said Thabo Moloi, who claimed to be a member of the ANC from Tshwane.

 

Source: https://ecgnews.online/2019/02/06/blf-mboro-anc-eff-rally-behind-bushiri/

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Thousands throng Pretoria as Major One is released

Thousands gathered outside the specialised commercial crime courts where Prophet Bushiri appeared

Thousands gathered outside the specialised commercial crime courts where Prophet Bushiri appeared

Pretoria – At least 10,000 people caused a massive blockade along Visagie street in the capital today as Prophet Bushiri and Prophetess Mary Bushiri were released on bail.

Police cordoned off roads leading to the court, and were kept on their toes the entire time by a crowd that sang, danced and cheered, as the couple was released.

“We are thrilled by this massive show of love and support. This is truly an amazing demonstration that God is still speaking today.”, said Maynard Manyowa, ECG external relations manager.

As early as 06:00am the Specialised Commercial Crimes Court Pretoria was packed to the maximum, causing massive delays in traffic.

Prophet Bushiri is expected to address the world on Prophetic Channel at 20:00 CAT today.

Source: https://ecgnews.online/2019/02/06/thousands-throng-pretoria-as-major-one-is-released/

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Major 1 is not going anywhere: Mboro

Mboro stressed that he has businesses outside South Africa but has never been harassed.

Pretoria – Prophet Mboro says Major 1 will not go back to Malawi. He will stay and preach the Gospel.

Speaking at the Commercial Crime Court premises on Monday, charismatic Preacher and Prophet, Paseka (Mboro) Motsoaneng denounced calls for the deportation of Prophet Bushiri and his family.

“He must go all over the world and preach the gospel. He can’t only preach in Malawi…his ministry is needed in South Africa”

He added that if SANCO insists on the Prophet going back to Malawi, then all businesses that are run by Chinese and Indians and even Americans must go back to their countries.

Prophet Mboro said he also runs businesses outside South Africa but he has never faced xenophobic attacks towards them. He however emphasised that the Law must take its course and that Prophet Bushiri must allow all channels to take place.

Prophet Mboro is a long term rivalry of Prophet Bushiri who turned into a friend a few months ago. He spoke earlier on Monday about the need to support each other as the black community at the Commercial Crime Court in Pretoria where Prophet Shepherd Bushiri together with his wife, Mary were supposed to appear before the court for bail application.

They are charged with fraud, money laundering and Contravention of the Prevention of Organised Crime Act (POCA).

Brig Hangwani Mulaudzi said the crimes were alleged to have been committed from 2015 in relation to exchange control regulations of about $1,147,200 in foreign currency.

Prophets Shepherd and Mary are expected to appear in court on Wednesday the 6th of February following the court’s announcement that the application be postponed to that date.

Source: https://ecgnews.online/2019/02/05/major-1-is-not-going-anywhere-mboro/

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Prophet Mboro stands up for Major 1

Prophet Mboro is very close to Major One, and they often spend time together

Pretoria – Controversial Prophet Paseka ‘Mboro’ Motsoeneng urged hundreds of Prophet Bushiri’s supporters who were gathered outside the Commercial Crime Court to stand with their Father who is being charged with fraud, money laundering and contravention of the Prevention of Organised Crime Act (POCA) to remain calm and respect the Law.

This followed after hundreds of ECG members started chanting that they were not going to leave the court premises until Major 1 is released.

Prophet Mboro arrived at court in a white suit and matching white shoes and stole the show. In an interview with this publication, he said he came to support a brother who is been unfairly persecuted. He further narrated how the two Prophets sat down last year and decided to bury the hatchet.

He described Prophet Bushiri as a humble man and a true Man of God.

Prophet Bushiri and Prophet Mboro have had feuds for over five years, but according to both Prophets, that’s all in the past.

Mboro added that ECG members should pray for their father and their church.

He also pledged his unwavering support for Major 1.

Source: https://ecgnews.online/2019/02/05/prophet-mboro-stands-up-for-major-1/


The Transatlantic Slave Trade: 500 Years Later the Diaspora Still Suffers

Much of the wealth generated by the transatlantic slave trade supported the creation of industries and institutions in modern North America and Europe. (Photo: iStockphoto / NNPA)
Much of the wealth generated by the transatlantic slave trade supported the creation of industries and institutions in modern North America and Europe. (Photo: iStockphoto / NNPA)

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.
(Read the entire series: Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5, Part 6Part 7Part 8Part 9, Part 10Part 11)

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

“Impossible is just a big word thrown around by small men who find it easier to live in the world they’ve been given than to explore the power they have to change it. Impossible is not a fact. It’s an opinion. Impossible is not a declaration. It’s a dare. Impossible is potential. Impossible is temporary. Impossible is nothing.” — Muhammad Ali

“We need to exert ourselves that much more, and break out of the vicious cycle of dependence imposed on us by the financially powerful: those in command of immense market power and those who dare to fashion the world in their own image.”  — Nelson Mandela

The most enduring consequences of the migration for the migrants themselves and for the receiving communities, were the development of racism and the corresponding emergence and sustenance of an African-American community, with particular cultural manifestations, attitudes, and expressions.

The legacy is reflected in music and art, with a significant influence on religion, cuisine, and language, according to Paul E. Lovejoy, a distinguished research professor and Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History at York University in Toronto.

“The cultural and religious impact of this African immigration shows that migrations involve more than people; they also involve the culture of those people,” Lovejoy said in a recent post about the creation of the African diaspora.

American culture is not European or African but its own form, created in a political and economic context of inequality and oppression in which diverse ethnic and cultural influences both European and African – and in some contexts, Native American – can be discerned, Lovejoy said.

“Undoubtedly, the transatlantic slave trade was the defining migration that shaped the African Diaspora. It did so through the people it forced to migrate, and especially the women who were to give birth to the children who formed the new African-American population,” he said.

These women included many who can be identified as Igbo or Ibibio but almost none who were Yoruba, Fon, or Hausa.

Bantu women, from matrilineal societies, also constituted a considerable portion of the African immigrants, and it appears that females from Sierra Leone and other parts of the Upper Guinea Coast were also well represented, Lovejoy said.

“These were the women who gave birth to African-American culture and society,” he said.

After many rang in 2019 with celebratory parties and gatherings, there were still others who solemnly recalled the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade that started 400 years ago – 500 years, depending upon the region.

For Africans throughout the diaspora, their struggle not only traces back 400 or 500 years, but it continued and was underscored as recently as 135 years ago when the infamous Berlin Conference was held.

The conference led to the so-called “Scramble for Africa” by European powers who successfully split the continent into 53 countries, assuring a division that remains today.

“There isn’t a single thing that was more damaging to Africa than the Berlin Conference,” said African Union Ambassador Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao.

“Africans weren’t even invited to the conference,” she said.

At the conference, which took place over three months in Brazil beginning in February 1884 and attended by 13 European nations and the United Sates, ground rules were established to split Africa.

“Africans still are suffering the consequences,” the ambassador said.

Said John W. Ashe, the president of the United Nations General Assembly:

“The Transatlantic slave trade … for 400 years deprived Africa of its lifeblood for centuries and transformed the world forever.”

There’s no question that legacies of the slave trade persist today in most of the countries Africans were taken to, said Ayo Sopitan, founder of Pendulum Technologies in Houston, Texas.

“I have been thinking about how Africans and the diaspora need to get together – through proxies in the persons of recognized leaders – and have a conversation about the past, the role that African collaborators played and how we can unite as a people. Then, and only then will we be able to excel as a people,” Sopitan said.

“I have sat at lectures by Henry Gates and learned about blacks in the Americas. The conclusion is that wherever we are, blacks are usually at the bottom of the totem pole. This does not have to continue,” he said.

The transatlantic slave trade was an oceanic trade in African men, women, and children which lasted from the mid-sixteenth century until the 1860s.

European traders loaded African captives at dozens of points on the African coast, from Senegambia to Angola and round the Cape to Mozambique.

The great majority of captives were collected from West and Central Africa and from Angola, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization – UNESCO.

The trade was initiated by the Portuguese and Spanish especially after the settlement of sugar plantations in the Americas, UNESCO officials noted in a 2018 web presentation titled, “Slavery and Remembrance.”

European planters spread sugar, cultivated by enslaved Africans on plantations in Brazil, and later Barbados, throughout the Caribbean.

In time, planters sought to grow other profitable crops, such as tobacco, rice, coffee, cocoa, and cotton, with European indentured laborers as well as African and Indian slave laborers.

Nearly 70 percent of all African laborers in the Americas worked on plantations that grew sugar cane and produced sugar, rum, molasses, and other byproducts for export to Europe, North America, and elsewhere in the Atlantic world, according to UNESCO.

Before the first Africans arrived in British North America in 1619, more than half a million African captives had already been transported and enslaved in Brazil.

By the end of the nineteenth century, that number had risen to more than 4 million.

Northern European powers soon followed Portugal and Spain into the transatlantic slave trade.

The majority of African captives were carried by the Portuguese, Brazilians, the British, French, and Dutch. British slave traders alone transported 3.5 million Africans to the Americas, UNESCO reported.

The transatlantic slave trade was complex and varied considerably over time and place, but it had far-reaching and lasting consequences for much of Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Asia.

The profits gained by Americans and Europeans from the slave trade and slavery made possible the development of economic and political growth in major regions of the Americas and Europe.

Europeans used various methods to organize the Atlantic trade.

Spain licensed (by Asiento agreements) other nations to supply its Spanish American and Caribbean colonies with African captives. France, the Netherlands, and England initially used monopoly companies.

In time, the demand for African laborers in the Americas was met by more open trade which allowed other merchants to engage in the trade with Africans.

Thus, formidable private trading companies emerged, such as Britain’s Royal African Company (1660–1752) and the Dutch West India Company of the Netherlands (1602–1792), according to UNESCO.

The profits generated from the Atlantic trade economically and politically transformed Liverpool and Bristol in England, Nantes and Bordeaux in France, Lisbon in Portugal, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador de Bahia in Brazil, and Newport, Rhode Island, in the United States.

Each port developed links to a wide hinterland for local and international goods in Asia and capital to sustain the trade in African captives.

European merchants and ship captains – followed later by those from Brazil and North America – packed their sailing vessels with local goods and commodities from Asia to trade on the African coast.

Enslaved Africans, their often violent capture and enslavement out of sight of the European general public, were exchanged for iron bars and textiles, luxury goods, cowrie shells, liquor, firearms, and other products that varied region by region over time.

Much of the wealth generated by the transatlantic slave trade supported the creation of industries and institutions in modern North America and Europe.

To an equal degree, profits from slave trading and slave-generated products funded the creation of fine art, decorative arts, and architecture that continues to inform aesthetics today, UNESCO officials said.

“European countries – Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish – are most complicit in the transatlantic slave trade. This pernicious form of slavery was driven by European capitalistic countries seeking to expand their nation-states and empires,” said Dr. Jonathan Chism, assistant professor of history and a fellow with the Center for Critical Race Studies at the University of Houston Downtown.

The hurt continues today.

“The fact that slavery was underway for a century in South America before introduction in North America is not widely taught nor commonly understood,” said Felicia Davis of the HBCU Green Fund.

“It is a powerful historical fact missing from our understanding of slavery, its magnitude and global impact. Knowledge that slavery was underway for a century [before it began in North America] provides deep insight into how enslaved Africans adapted,” Davis said.

She continued:

“Far beyond the horrific seasoning description, clearly generations had been born into slavery long before introduction in North America. It deepens the understanding of how vast majorities could be oppressed in such an extreme manner for such a long period of time,” Davis said.

“It is also a testament to the strength and drive among people of African descent to live free.”

About Stacy M. Brown  154 Articles
A Little About Me: I’m the co-author of Blind Faith: The Miraculous Journey of Lula Hardaway and her son, Stevie Wonder (Simon & Schuster) and Michael Jackson: The Man Behind The Mask, An Insider’s Account of the King of Pop (Select Books Publishing, Inc.) My work can often be found in the Washington Informer, Baltimore Times, Philadelphia Tribune, Pocono Record, the New York Post, and Black Press USA.

Source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/the-transatlantic-slave-trade-500-years-later-the-diaspora-still-suffers/


The need for an African Union Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security

The Niger River flowing through Bamako, Mali © SIPRI.

The Niger River flowing through Bamako, Mali © SIPRI.

Dr Florian Krampe and Vane Moraa Aminga

Ahead of the upcoming African Union (AU) Summit in February, SIPRI researchers give an impetus for the AU to refocus on climate-related security risks and build broad support to appoint a dedicated AU Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security.

On 10–11 February, the 32nd Summit of Heads of State of the AU will be held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with the theme ‘Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons: Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa.’ Clearly in 2019, the AU wants to increase attention to the root causes of forced displacement and bolster the capacity of AU Member States to tackle the problem and create sustainable strategies.

Of course, migration and forced displacement are only symptoms of broader social, political, economic and ecological ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors. Especially in Africa, climate-related change is one of the most serious push factors. The frequency and magnitude of droughts, famine and flash floods displace millions and contribute to peoples’ decision to migrate. To address the push from climate impacts, there is a need to not only better comprehend but, to better respond to climate-related security risks.

This essay reflects upon the climate-related security risks facing Africa and reviews the current policy responses. It contends that broad AU member state support for an AU Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security would be a viable strategy that strengthens the AU’s response to climate risks. The idea of the envoy—which stems from the AU’s Peace and Security Council meeting in May 2018—is an opportunity to pre-empt migration and forced displacement and moreover, ‘climate-proof’ the AU’s peace and security architecture.

Overview of the climate-related security risks in Africa

Africa is responsible for a mere four per cent of global CO2 emissions.  Yet, no continent is equally affected by the double burden of climate change and political fragility as Africa. A recent study by United States Agency for International Development shows that globally 57 per cent of the countries facing the highest double burden of climate exposure and political fragility risks are located in sub-Saharan Africa (see figure 1).

Composite map overlaying climate exposure and political fragility. Source: USAID

Composite map overlaying climate exposure and political fragility. Source: USAID

 

African societies, moreover, face socioeconomic and political challenges, such as endemic poverty, weak and corrupt governance structures, protracted conflicts, demographic pressures and urbanization. These issues alone overwhelm the capacity of many African states to achieve goals within the AU’s long-term strategic framework ‘Agenda 2063’.

The evidence is clear—climate-related changes compound social and political challenges. Africa’s high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change is due to African economies’ dependency on agriculture, a sector acutely affected by climate fluctuations. The risks that ensue include that of violent conflict—which in itself is an additional push factor for migration and forced displacement.

Climate-related security risks, including migration, are transnational in character which reasserts the need for African states to find a multilateral response at the AU level. Shifting precipitation patterns have increased water scarcity in the Horn of Africa and the Sahel. This has put additional pressures on the availability of water and arable land as well as limiting the access to these resources within and across countries, sometimes forcing people to migrate. Conflicts and increased environmental stress have made the Sahel region a migration hotspot and North Africa a transit area for people attempting to reach Europe.

Climate change also exaggerates transnational security challenges such as water management. According to data from the United Nations Environment Programme, Africa has 59 international transboundary river basins and 15 principal lakes that cross the political boundaries of two or more countries. The Nile River Basin, for instance, extends over ten countries and the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System is shared by four countries. The expected variability in water availability requires cross-country collaboration, but it has also become a hotspot for regional tensions. The strained dynamics between Egypt and Ethiopia around the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam exemplify the security risks of cross-boundary resource sharing against a backdrop of changing climatic conditions. Further, this tension demonstrates the need for mediation through an appointed Special Envoy who could facilitate dialogue and cooperation.

The African Union’s response

Responding to climate-related security challenges requires an integrated approach that combines knowledge on climate risks with the social and political realities of the regions. A recent SIPRI studyshows that some of Africa’s regional organizations, such as the Economic Community of West African States and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, have recognized the increasing risks linked to climate change. Although both organizations have developed action-oriented frameworks on climate security, their policy implementation is inept and often remains pigeonholed in specialized commissions, rather than the more centralized and better funded peace and security arena.

The AU—as the overarching peacebuilding and development institution in Africa—is critical in responding to climate-related security risks. Given the compartmentalization of climate security issues within other regional organisations, it is noteworthy that the emerging discourse on climate security occurs within the AU’s peace and security framework. However, aside from rhetorical steps and statementsincluding the proposal of a Special Envoy for Climate and Security—the AU lacks a tangible policy framework that lays out specific actions on how to respond to climate security.

For instance, the African Peace and Security Architecture Roadmap 2016–20 highlights climate change as one of the cross-cutting issues in peace and security. However, the document also stresses existing challenges with mainstreaming climate security issues, for example, in regional early warning systems and conflict prevention functions within the AU Peace and Security Department. The AU Peace and Security Council acknowledges the vulnerability caused by climate change and has held two open sessions focusing on the linkages between climate change and security. Yet, so far recommendations have not been developed into actionable policy frameworks. Similarly, the AU’s ambitious goal to ‘Silence the Guns in Africa by the Year 2020’ underscores that linkages between climate change and security exist, but lacks sufficient understanding of what climate-related security risks are and how they affect societies.

Climate change and security leadership within the African Union

Being the most vulnerable continent to climate change—inextricably linked to the continent’s peace and security—Africa is in need of a clear climate security strategy and strategic leadership. Ongoing reform within the AU and the upcoming AU Summit provide an opportunity to showcase leadership and develop adequate responses to climate-related security risks.

Part of this should be the appointment of a Special Envoy to Climate Change and Security which could help widen the understanding of climate-related security risks within the AU. One example of how this can be done is commissioning integrated climate risks assessments that would directly inform the Committee of African Heads of State and Government on Climate Change, the AU Commission as well as the AU Peace and Security Council. Such assessments would be crucial to mainstream climate security in continental and regional early warning systems and conflict prevention functions within the AU Peace and Security Department. Moreover, to counter siloed responses to climate security, a Special Envoy could ensure that the current AU reform process integrates climate risks in its peace and security architecture and across its structure.

But a Special Envoy alone will not be enough. African Heads of State must take ownership and lead the continents’ response to climate-related security risks. Cooperation among AU Member States with a Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security will be an opportunity to climate-proof the AU’s peace and security architecture, address the root causes of migration and forced displacement, and as such become a catalyst to facilitate the AU’s ambitious Agenda 2063.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)

Dr Florian Krampe
Dr Florian Krampe is a Researcher in the Climate Change and Risk Programme.

Africa: Russia and China Back Nuclear As a Clean-Power Fix for Africa

by Sebastien Malo | @SebastienMalo | Thomson Reuters Foundation, Thursday, 7 February 2019 07:00 GMT
By Sebastien Malo

ADDIS ABABA, Feb 7 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – In a damp office at Ethiopia’s Addis Ababa University, doctoral student Hailu Geremew fantasises about working on the nuclear reactor his country is now pondering building.

“Oh that is my dream, my dream, my dream,” said the nuclear physicist, 32, wearing rectangular glasses and a cardigan.

Geremew is part of a new generation of African scientists whose prospects are expanding as their governments team up with foreign powers on a potential fast-track to electrification.

For now, South Africa is the only country on the continent operating a nuclear power plant.

But in recent years, at least seven other sub-Saharan African states have signed agreements to deploy nuclear power with backing from Russia, according to public announcements and the World Nuclear Association (WNA), an industry body.

Geremew first heard about the ambitious nuclear deal Ethiopia had struck with Moscow on the television news two years ago. The next day, his university department was buzzing with talk about it.

Ethiopia’s memorandum of understanding on nuclear cooperation with Russia paves the way for the construction of a nuclear power plant and a research reactor in the long term, said Frehiwot Woldehanna, Ethiopia’s state minister for the energy sector.

The East African country has been electrifying rapidly to meet rising energy demand and its own goal to become the biggest power exporter on the continent, while sticking to pledges to remain a low emitter of planet-warming greenhouse gases.

Under a 2015-2020 development plan, Addis Ababa wants to raise power generation to more than 17,000 megawatts (MW) from current capacity of just over 4,200 MW, mainly by harnessing hydro, wind and geothermal sources.

Its most ambitious project under construction is the Grand Renaissance Dam on the Nile river that will churn out 6,000 MW at full capacity when completed within the next four years, according to Ethiopian Electric Power, the state-owned utility.

But Woldehanna worries about betting on an abundance of water for the country’s main source of electricity, as droughts become more frequent.

With rivers sometimes drying up, “you cannot fully rely on hydropower”, he said, adding that nuclear technologies have “environmental” advantages over others.

Plans for a nuclear power plant in Ethiopia remain at the “pre-feasibility stage”, but the country is serious about building one, he emphasised.

‘ATOMS FOR AFRICA’

With sub-Saharan Africa’s 48 countries generating the same amount of power as Spain, despite a population 18 times larger, the option to bring electricity access to their people on a bigger scale using nuclear energy is gaining momentum.

Nearly six out of 10 sub-Saharan Africans still lack access to electricity, according to World Bank data.

Like Ethiopia, emerging nuclear states Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Rwanda, Zambia and Ghana have signed agreements with Russia’s state nuclear corporation, ROSATOM – most since 2016.

Their content ranges from language on the construction of nuclear reactors to assistance with feasibility studies and personnel training, press statements show.

ROSATOM’s solutions for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste vary from country to country, but are normally worked out at the later stages of a nuclear new-build programme “in the strictest compliance with international law”, a spokeswoman told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Chinese state-owned nuclear firms have also taken the lead in the region, sealing deals with Kenya, Sudan and Uganda, WNA data shows.

Nuclear physics doctoral student, Hailu Geremew, poses for a picture in the Addis Ababa University nuclear physics laboratory on January 21, 2019. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Sebastien Malo

South African student Masamaki Masanja, 23, won a ROSATOM competition for young people to make videos about Africa’s nuclear potential, and got to visit the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in western Russia in 2017.

“It was mind-blowing,” said the second-year mechanical engineering student, via Skype.

The experience left him with a strong sense that nuclear power should be adapted quickly for Africa’s needs.

Sub-Saharan African nations have shown an interest in nuclear because coal is scarce, while large volumes of natural gas in Nigeria and Tanzania tend to be exported for profit, said Jessica Lovering, co-author of a 2018 report, “Atoms for Africa”, from the U.S.-based Center for Global Development.

Booming populations and international pressure to curb greenhouse gas emissions also play a role, she added.

Ethiopia, for instance, has pledged under the Paris Agreement on climate change to curb its already meagre emissions by two-thirds from business-as-usual projections by 2030.

The Paris accord, agreed in 2015 by about 195 nations, seeks to wean the global economy off fossil fuels in the second half of this century, limiting the rise in average temperatures to “well below” 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial times.

Ramping up nuclear power may be a carbon-neutral option, but presents dilemmas such as the high cost of building a plant and setting up supporting infrastructure, including safe management of nuclear fuel, said Lovering.

Yet gaining access to large amounts of cheap electricity from nuclear plants that run 24/7 could boost domestic manufacturing, as well as lighting up homes, she said.

Winners of a ROSATOM online video competition, experts and journalists from Zambia, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Tanzania stand in front of cooling towers at the Novovoronezh-2 nuclear power plant in Russia on December 14, 2017. Handout/ROSATOM/

REBEL RISK

Some political observers, however, are concerned about the prospect of nuclear reactors backed by Russia in some countries with rebel groups and weak government institutions.

An Africa-based Western diplomat, who asked to remain anonymous, doubted Russia’s assurances it would collect nuclear waste from projects it helped establish.

“You could end up with very unfortunate situations in parts of Africa … if you have a decaying nuclear power plant overrun by rebels, with waste that’s not going away,” he said.

Multiple requests for an interview with Russia’s ambassador in Ethiopia were declined.

So-called dirty bombs can combine conventional explosives like dynamite with radioactive material such as nuclear waste.

Noel Stott, a South Africa-based researcher with VERTIC, a non-profit that tracks the implementation of international treaties, highlighted an array of agreements in place to control the weaponisation of nuclear technology.

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to which all African countries but South Sudan are party, mandates safeguards to secure nuclear material, for example.

And 40 nations have joined the Treaty of Pelindaba that creates a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Africa.

Workers make cookies at the Mo-Ya factory in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on January 23, 2019. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Sebastien Malo

HALF-BAKED?

At family-run cookie factory Mo-Ya, which towers over surrounding homes in Addis Ababa, chief executive officer Sara Zemui said Ethiopia’s plans to grow and modernise its energy production would mean better-powered businesses – and more jobs.

Frequent electricity cuts have long disrupted baking at the factory, spoiling batches of the cookies whose sugary scent perfumes Sunday mass at a nearby church.

A few months ago, Mo-Ya forked out more than $100,000 to purchase equipment that, in a blackout, enables a seamless transition to generator power, Zemui said.

Here, as in the nearly two-thirds of Ethiopia with access to an electricity connection, power cuts – and associated costs – are caused mainly by overloads on the ageing grid, said Tilahun Legesse, a director at the Ethiopian Electric Utility.

In other parts of Africa, however, similar daily outages are due to insufficient power production, said Lovering.

At Addis Ababa University, assistant professor Tilahun Tesfaye cannot wait for his country to reap the benefits of a nuclear reactor.

“It’s long, long overdue,” he said. “The need is very high.”

But the road will be a long one, he said, pointing to out-of-order machinery in his nuclear physics laboratory, the largest such facility in this country of 105 million people.

It could take 20 years for Ethiopia to build a nuclear power plant, estimated Hong-Jun Ahn, a Korean electrical engineer who advises the Ethiopian government on its nuclear plans.

Yonas Gebru, director of Addis Ababa-based advocacy group Forum for Environment, said green activists could prove another hurdle amid debate over whether nuclear power is “clean” energy.

“It would be good, and it would be wise also … to better capitalise on already started initiatives such as hydropower, wind energy (and) solar energy,” said Gebru.

(Reporting by Sebastien Malo @sebastienmalo; editing by Megan Rowling and Laurie Goering. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers climate change, humanitarian news, women’s and LGBT+ rights, human trafficking and property rights. Visit http://news.trust.org/climate)

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

Source: http://news.trust.org/item/20190207065113-7swb3


Harris Africa Partners LLC

Dear Friends,
I wanted to share some recent highlights, including an essay in Foreign Affairs on my concerns about the new U.S. strategy toward Africa and a previous op-ed in TIME on how Chinese debt diplomacy in Africa threatens U.S. national security.
Take care,
Grant

Media
  • CNBC Africa interview on the Congolese election, January 2019
  • Bolton Outlines a Strategy for Africa That’s Really About Countering China, The New York Times, December 2018
  • US Seeks to Counter Growing Chinese Influence in Africa, Associated Press, December 2018
  • Bolton Accuses China and Russia of ‘Predatory Practices’ in Africa, Financial Times, December 2018
  • ‘China Must Be Stopped’: Zambia Debates the Threat of ‘Debt-Trap’ Diplomacy, World Politics Review, December 2018
  • US Plans to Counter Spread of Chinese and Russian Influence in Africa, Says Top Official, The Straits Times (Singapore), December 2018
  • One African Nation Put the Brakes on Chinese Debt. But Not for Long, The New York Times, November 2018
  • African UN Security Council Members Push for AU-Led Peacekeepers, Voice of America, November 2018
  • A New Chinese-Funded Railway In Kenya Sparks Debt-Trap Fears, NPR, October 2018
  • China’s Reputation as Development Financier on the Line, Financial Times, September 2018 [Financial Times editorial cites to my op-ed in TIMEmagazine]
  • China Defends Plans to Spend $60bn in Africa Over Three Years, The Guardian, September 2018
  • China Pledges $60bn for Africa as Xi Rejects ‘Debt Trap’ Claims, Financial Times, September 2018
  • Africans Must Analyse Lending by China, Ensure It’s In Their Interest, Daily Nation (Kenya), September 2018
  • China Deepens Africa Ties With $60 Billion Pledge, China Economic Review(China), September 2018
  • TRT World television (a Turkish international news channel) on whether Chinese investment in Africa is helping or hurting the continent, September 2018
  • China Promises Further Investment in African Agriculture: “Debt Trap” or Marketing Ploy?, Future Directions International (Australia), September 2018
  • France 24 television on Chinese debt diplomacy, September 2018
  • Voice of America television on “Africa 54” program to discuss U.S.-Kenya relations, August 2018
  • CNBC Africa television to discuss an Oval Office meeting between President Trump and Kenyan President Kenyatta, August 2018
  • BBC World News television on U.S.-Kenya relations and U.S.-Africa policy, August 2018
  • Africa Looks for Something New Out of Donald Trump, Financial Times, August 2018
  • Kenyatta and Trump: In Search of a Reputation Boost, DW (Germany), August 2018
  • Voice of America television on “Africa 54” program to discuss former President Barack Obama’s Nelson Mandela Lecture in South Africa, July 2018
  • CNBC Africa television to discuss investment trends in Africa, July 2018
  • CNBC Africa television to discuss visits to Africa by Chinese President Xi and Indian Prime Minister Modi, July 2018
  • CNBC Africa television to discuss trade and investment issues related to Africa, July 2018
  • Channels TV (“Nigeria’s 12-time TV station of the year”) in television interview to discuss Chinese debt diplomacy, June 2018
  • Harris’ op-ed reprinted in Invest in Africa: The African Diaspora (an official publication of the African Union), June 2018

Speaking Events

  • Moderated fireside chat with the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Rwanda at the University of California, Davis Law School
  • Featured in Executive Roundtable at the International Trade Association of Greater Chicago
  • Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago
  • Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University
  • Kuramo Capital “Sub-Saharan Africa Day” in New York
  • Pearson Global Forum, University of Chicago
  • Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS)
  • Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School Junior Summer Institute
CNBC Africa on elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
BBC World News on President Kenyatta’s visit to the U.S.
Voice of America on President Obama’s Mandela Lecture in South Africa
CNBC Africa on President Xi and Prime Minister Modi’s Visits to Africa
Copyright © 2019 Harris Africa Partners LLC, All rights reserved

Black First Land First’s Demand: South Africa President Cyril Ramaphosa must Apologize to Prophet Shepherd Bushiri

07 February 2019 – 16:40BY NONKULULEKO NJILO

Black First Land First president Andile Mngxitama wants Cyril Ramaphosa to apologise to self-proclaimed prophet Shepherd Bushiri.

Black First Land First president Andile Mngxitama wants Cyril Ramaphosa to apologise to self-proclaimed prophet Shepherd Bushiri. 
Image: Masi Losi

As the country geared up for the state of the nation address (Sona) to be delivered by President Cyril Ramaphosa on Thursday evening, Black First Land First (BLF) made a rather unprecedented demand.

“We want Cyril Ramaphosa [at Sona] to apologise to the Major 1 for the harassment that has gone on here. It is Cyril Ramaphosa’s responsibility to apologise and to say he is not supporting xenophobia and does not support the harassment of black people,” said the movement’s leader Andile Mngxitama.

He made the remarks at the Pretoria’s Specialised Commercial Court after the self-proclaimed “prophet” Shepherd Bushiri and his “prophetess” wife Mary were granted bail of R100,000 each.

The two were arrested by the Hawks and spent days in custody. Mngxitama claimed they were harassed because Bushiri was a “successful black man of God”.

“There was no reason at all to keep him in jail, the Major 1 is no stranger to South Africa. This man of God has been in this country, they were just harassing him,” he asserted.

A Bushiri follower who travelled from New York, Sheila Akwawa, said on Wednesday that she interpreted his arrest as a “xenophobic attack”.

Bushiri denied having any involvement in money laundering, organised crime and fraud during his bail application.

Among his supporters in court was Zenele Khoza, who said she was certain her “parents” were innocent, adding she was prepared to die for “the prophet”.

Addressing his supporters in the Prophetic Channel on YouTube, Bushiri touched on the controversies surrounding his ministry, as well as the support he had received.

“In these past five weeks, we are under immense orchestrated attacks, starting with organised protests, where we saw people burning tyres on the street, to demand that I leave the country, to which I am a permanent resident.”

He thanked political parties and the BLF for their support.

Source: https://www.timeslive.co.za/politics/2019-02-07-blfs-astonishing-demand-cyril-ramaphosa-must-apologise-to-bushiri

Black First Land First (BLF) is a black consciousnesspan-Africanist and revolutionary socialist political party in South Africa. It was founded in 2015 by Andile Mngxitama following his expulsion from the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), led by Julius Malema.

Mngxitama’s chief policy is ‘expropriation without compensation’ of white-owned land, which he declares to have been directly stolen from Africans. On this issue, he has accused EFF of selling out to the ANC, which he regards as too friendly to business interests. BLF is aligned with South Africa’s Ex-President Jacob Zuma, and has also shown support for the influential Gupta family. Its policies have been labelled as black supremacist. Some of its members have been accused of threatening investigative journalists. And Mngxitama has theorised that climate change is caused by capitalism and racism. To learn more, visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_First_Land_First


Morocco in the fast lane with world’s largest concentrated solar farm

As well as a host nation of a Formula ePrix, the country is also home to the world’s largest concentrated solar farm.
Built on an area of more than 3,000 hectares in area – the size of 3,500 football fields — the Noor-Ouarzazate complex, produces enough electricity to power a city the size of Prague, or twice the size of Marrakesh.
Situated at the gateway to the Sahara Desert, the whole complex provides 580 megawatts — saving the planet from over 760,000 tonnes of carbon emissions.
Morocco has one of most ambitious energy targets in the world. The goal is for 42% of its power to come from renewable sources by 2020.
The country is well on track to hit its target too with 35% of its energy is already renewable thanks to sites such as Noor Ouarzazate.
Its 243 meter tower, the tallest in Africa, houses molten salt which is melted to create energy.
An aerial view of the solar mirrors at the Noor 1 Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant, some 20km (12.5 miles) outside the central Moroccan town of Ouarzazate.

Unlike conventional solar panels which deliver energy direct to the grid, curved mirrors concentrate radiation to heat tubes of fluid which are pumped t
A cylinder full of salt is melted by the warmth from the mirrors during the day, and stays hot enough at night to provide up to three hours of power, according to World Bank, who financed construction of the plant with a $400 million loan combined with $216 million provided from the Clean Technology Fund.
Noor Ouarzazate in Morocco produces enough electricity to power a city the size of Prague.
Imported fossil fuels currently provide for 97% of Morocco’s energy need, according to World Bank . As a result the country is keen to diversify and start using renewable energy.
“Morocco is an emergent country,” Yassir Badih, senior project manager at Masen told CNN.
“Electricity demand has doubled since 2010 and by 2030 we want Morocco to be one of the first countries in the world for renewables to exceed share of fossil energy.”

Beyond the game We teach black boys sports are their only hope. What if we let them dream bigger?

By Martellus Bennett, FEBRUARY 1, 2019
As young black boys in Alief, Tex., my friends and I often spent afternoons imagining ourselves scoring the game-winning touchdown at the end of the Super Bowl. Each time we went through it, the final play would become more outlandish.

The quarterback would take the snap, drop back and throw a short pass to the wide receiver or, in my case, the tight end. (I always loved short passes more than Hail Marys, because you could really show off your skills as a runner.) We’d juke three linebackers, break 20 tackles, stiff-arm the strong safety to the ground and hurdle the referee before tiptoeing down the sideline and front-flipping into the end zone. The crowd would erupt: “TOUUCCHHHDDOOWNNNN!” Confetti would fall. The commentators would be stunned.

We’d dogpile each other, screaming and rejoicing. And we’d follow it with a postgame news conference. “I’ve prepared for this moment since I was a little kid,” we’d say. “I always knew I would make it here.” As we spoke, we’d take sips of Gatorade, because when we made it big, that company would surely be one of our sponsors.

It felt great. Beyond great, actually: It felt real.

We knew we could be champions because the ones we watched on TV looked just like us. And we had already learned that to escape to a better life, we needed to be wearing a jersey. The jersey became a cape; our talents on the field became the superpowers we were recognized for.

We were black boys. And to be born a black boy is to be born into athletics. Black fathers are often disappointed if their sons aren’t good at sports. Not excelling at sports as a black boy meant not being cool — even weirder, it meant not really being black. When you’re growing up as a black boy, it feels like the world tosses you a ball and says, Good luck. Go get ’em, Champ.

The superpowers we felt wearing a jersey were real: We could leap defenders in a single bound, run faster than a speeding bullet down the sideline, lift 400-pound offensive tackles with our super-strength. Passed down generation to generation, from black boy to black boy, those jerseys empowered us. We all believed we were the chosen ones who could do the impossible, what we saw so many before us fail to do: make it to the National Football League. Eventually, I did.

But most of the black boys I spent my afternoons with, playing in imaginary Super Bowls, weren’t at the lockers next to mine. Most of the black boys who picture themselves winning this Sunday’s game will never play in a real one.

And that’s fine: Playing in the NFL isn’t really — and shouldn’t have to be — every black boy’s dream. But black boys don’t always know that their dreams off the field matter. They need the space to see other, diverse possibilities for themselves. Black boys shouldn’t have to feel that being good at sports is the only way to be cool — or to be valued by the world.

A jersey isn’t the only cape a black boy can wear.

The stats prove I was the exception: Less than 2 percent of college football or basketball players go on to play in the NFL or the National Basketball Association. Just 8 out of every 10,000 high school football players get drafted by an NFL team. But for too many black boys, that’s still the only path to success that seems feasible. At the 65 universities in the biggest NCAA sports conferences, black men make up 2.4 percent of undergraduate students but 55 percent of the football players and 56 percent of the basketball players.

Growing up, our athletic talents created a hierarchy for how we were viewed in the neighborhood. Colleges, newspapers, magazines and websites even ranked us according to ability. The better you were at sports, the more respect and love you got. We were celebrated as athletes, and that felt good — every kid wants to be celebrated — so we all competed to become the best.

Parents saw our potential and pushed us to keep trying. If you were an average player, they’d take time to set up practice drills to help you improve. If you were good, the entire community invested in you — coming to games, talking about you in the barbershop. Even your friends saw you differently: There was hope for you, but not for them. The neighborhood held you to a higher standard than the other kids. You became the chosen one. You’re the one who’s gonna make it. If you were average at school, though, almost no one pushed you to become a better student. No one set up drills to take your academics from good to great. Grades mattered only when they kept you from playing. A C-minus and an A-plus were exactly the same, because they both meant you were eligible to stay on the team.

In college, too, you were an athlete first, a student second. Coaches steered you into majors at which they thought you could succeed — defining “success” as maintaining eligibility — and toward courses that didn’t pull you away from your athletic responsibilities. As black boys, you went to college to try to get to the league, not to try to get a degree.

So as black boys, we learn to dunk on people in the paint, not paint beautiful pictures. We stiff-arm defenders, not defend people in court. We crossover our opponents, not cross over into business. We learn code names for play calls, not how to code. We touch the top of the backboard, not the stars. We get introduced to the world based on our athletic attributes. Our superpowers.

“That’s the boy with the killer crossover.”

“That’s Michael’s son. He has an even better jumper than his dad.”

“That boy there . . . he’s nice. He has vision like Barry Sanders.”

Or, if you were me: “This is Martellus. He’s the 6’6” small forward at Alief Taylor High School. Boy gets buckets.”

Our dreams on the field or the court seemed to be the most important ones to those around us. So they became the most important dreams to us, as well. They were the only dreams that those around us made us believe in.

And in Alief, where I grew up — and in places where so many black boys like me grow up — we had to believe in something. In my neighborhood, more than one-third of adult residents don’t have high school diplomas; fewer than 20 percent of black men in the Houston area have college degrees. Nationwide, black students get expelled from school three times as often as white students. Half of all black men have been arrested at least once by age 23. No wonder dreaming up a way out feels so urgent.

Football coaches at any level — high school, college, the pros — don’t like players to have interests outside of football. You can’t really love football if you love other things, they tell us; the marriage of player and sport is meant to be monogamous. A guy who plays football and also makes art? The football gods would never allow it. Once the world labels you an athlete, people don’t believe you can do anything else. And when you try to share your other gifts with the world, you’re constantly reminded that no one cares.

It shouldn’t be that way. Every dream matters. Every dream deserves support. Every dream counts. And they’re all worth way more than a layup or a touchdown. As black boys, my friends and I never dreamed about creating the next tech giant, or running a Fortune 500 company, or opening restaurants, or winning Oscars for directing movies, or becoming real estate tycoons, or being elected president and changing the world.

No one ever told us about all of the other possibilities the world offered. No one ever made us feel that we could achieve anything and everything we dreamed of. The NFL is nearly 70 percent black, so we knew we belonged there. But the tech industry is less than 8 percent black, so we didn’t really feel like that was for us. Only 6 percent of doctors are black. Only 2 percent of teachers are black men. There are only three black CEOs in the Fortune 500. Black directors made only 5 percent of Hollywood’s biggest movies in the past decade. Those worlds look mostly white, because they are.

There just aren’t that many heroes who resemble us outside of sports. We shouldn’t have to imagine being “the black Walt Disney” or “the black Steven Spielberg” to think about going into movies, “the black Steve Jobs” or “the black Bill Gates” to dream of being high-tech innovators, or “the black Stan Lee” to picture ourselves as comic book writers.

I want all the boys like my childhood friends to know that they are more than athletes, more than a jersey number, more than their 40-yard-dash time — that in the biggest game they’ll ever play, they won’t be able to dribble their way to victory, and that there are people rooting for them off the courts and fields as future leaders. The traits that make these strong, beautiful black boys great at sports — mental toughness, dedication, passion, determination and willpower — will propel them forward in other areas. With the right preparation and the power of imagination, every black boy can win. Every dream is achievable for black boys.

I write this not as a former basketball player who entered the NBA draft in high school or as a Super Bowl champion, but as a children’s book author, a film director, a writer, a comic book enthusiast and creator, a painter, an illustrator, a creative director, an entrepreneur, an investor, a candy-maker, a shoe designer, an executive producer, a musician, an app developer, a political cartoonist, an activist, a toymaker, a husband, a father, a business owner and a property owner.

I write this as a black boy who’s still dreaming new dreams.

Martellus Bennett played in the NFL for ten years and won the 2017 Super Bowl with the New England Patriots. He’s the founder of the Imagination Agency and author of the forthcoming “Dear Black Boy.”  Follow

Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/posteverything/wp/2019/02/01/feature/we-teach-black-boys-sports-are-their-only-hope-what-if-we-let-them-dream-bigger


Important Message From Emeritus Prophet Uebert Angel Encouraging all to be at the Court To Support Prophet Shepherd and Prophetess Mary Bushiri Appearing Before Judges Against False Accusations

“Thank you so much for attending the diplomatic service at Pretoria Showgrounds yesterday. It was an amazing experience ministering to you, and with you.

Thank you for the wonderful intercession and sincere prayers. We cannot change God but we can line up with his will in our prayers, that he protects us that are persecuted and suffer for his sake.

As you know, tomorrow, my son, your father, God’s Prophets, Prophet Shepherd and Mary Bushiri will appear in court tomorrow at 06:00 SOUTH AFRICAN TIME, I am encouraging all of you to be at the court before 06:00am to show your support and love for your Spiritual father, MAJOR 1 and your spiritual Mum.

I want however, to remind you that your church, the ECG Church, belongs to everyone. The church is as taught by the Prophet is an apolitical organisation where people from all walks of life converge to seek the grace of God.

It is paramount to understand that your mandate as stewards of ECG is to remain committed to winning souls, and preaching the word of God, even as you and your prophet are being persecuted.

It is NOT your duty as stewards of ECG or children of God to make political statements, to warn political players, or indulge in politics.

Remember that amongst yourselves are members of each and every political party in South Africa and beyond.

I want to ask you, as someone you love and respect, that you show up in hundreds or thousands, to pray, to offer support to your father, to praise God in this storm, but not to indulge in political statements or any sign of violence.

As a show of this unity, feel free to wear any regalia of your choice. If you are South African and you are a voter and you support ANC wear your ANC T-shirt, if you support EFF wear your EFF T-shirt, if you support DA, wear your T-shirt, if you support COPE or any other party, wear the regalia and of you support none wear whatever you deem fit. If you support Chiefs or Pirates, do the same.

As South Africans you have these rights, to support these parties. But it is not your mandate to make political statements under this anointing.

I would like to remind you once again that we will all be fasting from 00:00 CAT to 13:00 CAT.

God bless you all and please go and make your father feel your love at 6am

I love you all and God bless!”

Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 e Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 b Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6c


VOTE OF THANKS STATEMENT BY PROPHET SHEPHERD BUSHIRI

Major 1 birefind after release fom prisonTo everyone reading this right now, I greet you in the mighty name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

My wife and I are extremely happy to talk to you right now.

I know you missed me and I also missed you. That is why I thought of taking a moment to talk to you just for few minutes.

The entire purpose of this address is to thank everybody who stood in solidarity with me and my wife in the past 5 weeks that we experienced situations after situations, starting with organized protests, to demands that I leave the country for which I am a permanent resident, to demands that the Pretoria branch be closed, my wife being poisoned to within an inch of her life, all the way to our incarceration.

Your prayers strengthened us and we also prayed for you so that God grants you continued energy to keep praying for us.

We thank you very much.

However, I will be failing in my address if I don’t specifically mention the following individuals and institutions.

The Office of the President of South Africa who always made sure that, through the CRL Commission, all the issues surrounding the stampede are addressed within the dictates of the law. We are happy that, through the mediation of the CRL Commission, our religious rights were protected.

The Office of the President of Malawi and the High Commissioner’s office here in South Africa who did a great job of checking up on us regularly to see if we were in good spirits and being treated in accordance with the law.

There were many political parties here in South Africa that stood with us. The ANC, through its Tshwane Region chairperson, Mr KGOSI MOEPA. The leadership of EFF. The Black First Land First (BLF), led Mr Andile Mangxitama. The South Africa Communist Party of Tshwane led by Mr Solly Thabata, just to mention but a few.

We also received immense support from different civil society organizations such as Malawi Civil Society Led Black Economic Empowerment Movement (MABLEP), the African Diaspora, the South Africa National Civic Organisation (SANCO) and many others.

I should also mention the enormous support we got from the media. Special mention should go to the SABC, ENCA, News24, Jacaranda FM, Prophetic Channel and many other media houses who were always informing people fairly and accurately.

I would be failing in my address if I don’t recognize, in a special way, the encouragement and prayers I got from my spiritual father, Prophet Uebert Angel, Prophet Beverly and the entire Good News team.

To all ECG leaders, my communications team, my legal team, my family and every member and follower out there, we say: THANK YOU very much.

And lastly, I would like to thank my wife for standing with me and our two beautiful daughters for always praying for us. I thank you.

It is my prayer that God should touch every part of your life and I have belief in my God.

I love you all,

Shalom.

Major 1 and Prophetess Mary trudging out of the courtroom 2019-2-6Prophet Bushiri addresses thousands outside the court 2019-2-6 Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 b Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 d Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 e Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6 Thousands packed outside the court 2019-2-6c


Gullah people embrace culture amid new challenges in the most African place in America

Zenobia Harper, a Gullah Geechee woman from Georgetown, S.C., recites a poem in the Gullah dialect. Nathaniel Cary, ncary@greenvillenews.com

The first enslaved African people arrived in the New World with the English colonists in the mid-17th century, sometimes aboard the same ships arriving in Carolina from overseas or with colonists resettling from outposts in the Caribbean, particularly Barbados.

From the start, under the authority of the 1669 Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina authored by English philosopher John Locke, who wrote that “every Freeman of Carolina shall have absolute Power and Authority over his Negro Slaves,” slavery took root. Its effects are still being wrestled today.

As those early colonists established livestock and agriculture as means of survival and later to enrich the Royal Crown on land granted by King Charles II, slave traders increasingly targeted people from West African regions. The first wave of enslaved West Africans arrived from 1670 to 1690.

They possessed knowledge and culture, strength and ingenuity developed in their own agrarian lifestyle. The enslaved brought those traits with them.

And those traits, alongside back-breaking field work under the harshest of conditions, made the Carolinas into wealthy colonies. Once the Carolinas split into North and South in 1712, they each became wealthy, with the southern Carolina becoming the second-wealthiest colony in America.

The new plantation owners found indigo to be a cash crop. And enslaved Africans grew it along the sandy river banks and mixed its ink in vats until their arms stained permanently purple. And when the Crown reduced its reliance on indigo from America, those plantation owners developed a new cash crop, rice.

The labor needed to clear the land’s black cypress trees, dig canals and plant and harvest the rice fell to the enslaved, and numbers of West Africans poured into the Carolinas. Eventually 90 percent of the populations of counties such as Georgetown were made up of enslaved Africans. In some places, they grew cotton or sugar cane. In others they raised hogs or cattle. But rice was king.

Some of the enslaved escaped south to Florida or north to Canada, but those who remained melded their language, religion and culture — brought from African regions and further developed where the United States would later rise — into its own unique culture, passed down orally from generation to generation.

Once the Civil War emancipated enslaved Africans who had been brought to the Carolinas for their agrarian knowledge and physical labor, ex-slaves across the South fled from white terrorism.

But along the coast from roughly Jacksonville, North Carolina, to south of Jacksonville, Florida, many ex-slaves remained. They claimed land from abandoned plantations, opened businesses during Reconstruction along the main streets of cities and then, as Jim Crow took hold, increasingly isolated themselves into communities along the coastal corridor, especially on sea islands where many have remained for generations.

What developed is seen now as the most African place in America. The people became known as Gullah Geechee though the title’s origin is unknown.

They farmed collards, lettuce, tomatoes and butter peas, fished for oysters, shrimp and sea bass, and raised hogs and chickens. Their relative isolation from white society left intact much of the traditional culture that had developed during slavery and hearkens back to African or Caribbean roots.

Gullah communities built wooden one-room praise houses to worship with energetic singing and shouts. Many painted their shutters and porches haint-blue to ward off angry dead spirits. The Gullah culture can be seen in the sweet-grass baskets some still weave on the sidewalks of Charleston or in the creativity and adaptability of Gullah soul food that incorporates the rice, sea food, sweet potatoes, grits, local vegetables and basic spices available to cooks during slavery.

More than anything else, Gullah people share a distinct dialect, a creole language that shares similarities with some West African languages that meld with English to create a quick-paced, easily flowing language.

During Reconstruction, Joe Fields’ grandparents purchased 11 acres on Johns Island, South Carolina, where they first raised hogs and lived a quiet lifestyle of subsistence farming in the poor, rural communities south of Charleston. His parents bought more acreage across the winding two-lane road in the 1960s and expanded as commercial farmers.

Then took over Fields, the youngest of eight children and a third-generation farmer who began by spreading chicken and horse manure over 46 acres and growing tomatoes, collards, cabbage and peas. He returned the farm to its organic roots in 2010 and now farms 35 acres of organic collards, lettuce, kale, spinach and more.

The land is important and keeping the family farm alive is just as important, Fields said. Photos of his parents and grandparents hang in his roadside market, as does a photo of his grandson, now 15, who wants to take over the farm one day.

On a cool January morning, two family members used a chainsaw to cut through muscadine grape vines they were removing while another pulled weeds by hand from a patch of broccoli. Fields fed chickens and petted Shetland ponies that take up residence along Joseph Fields Family Lane, a dirt road that leads to his house. The lane bisects Fields Family Lane, which leads to other houses on the back of the farm.

The entire family still lives here, and many work the farm together.

“We all built around the farm, so all of the houses that you see are brothers and sisters and nieces and nephews,” Fields said. “It’s something we love to do. Farming is in our heart.”

Fields doesn’t plan to go anywhere, but real estate signs have posted all along the stretch of road nearby. It’s a sign of the rapid suburban development that’s reached its tentacles from Charleston and the resort-heavy sea islands nearby. Some have sold, and sprawling estates back up to river access points while subdivisions take shape nearby.

Development pressure, and the gentrification it can bring, is one of the leading threats to the Gullah way of life, numerous Gullah preservationists said.

Because of isolation, the Gullah Geechee people lived in tight-knit communities with families often sharing land passed down through generations. Most remained poor and suffered through segregation, poorly educated and bereft of wealth-building opportunities afforded white landowners who ranched cattle or managed forestry operations.

Parents left no more than oral wills, telling their children not to sell the land but to share it and live on it. Many did, and because the children shared ownership and often passed it down to their children, the land ownership has gotten murky.

Children who owned shares of land got married or took jobs and moved away. Others who stayed now shoulder the burden of paying property taxes, sometimes for more than their share of the land. Because of shared ownership, many Gullah people can’t get mortgages to build houses on their property. Since they can’t afford to pay cash, often they’ve bought trailers — which are taxed as personal property, not houses — and placed them on their land.

Queen Quet Marquetta L. Goodwine, Chieftess of the Gullah Geechee Nation and a native of Saint Helena Island, one of the sea islands along South Carolina’s coast, said encroaching development and family dynamics of heirs’ properties present some of the main challenges to the Gullah people’s way of life today.

“Many that have not grown up on the land do not value it in the same manner that those that live on it do,” Goodwine said. “They often see if as a ‘cash cow’ for an instant, but they do not look at the long-range value of it and how you cannot calculate the value of cultural heritage and self-sufficiency on property that is actually owned and not mortgaged.”

Unable to afford rising property taxes because of land value with water or beach access that’s become valuable, some families have chosen to relocate, Goodwine said. Others have ended up in court as families who share land can’t agree on whether to sell or stay, she said.

Ed Atkins took over Atkins Live Bait, which his parents started in 1957 on the side of the Sea Island Parkway that spans Lady’s Island and Saint Helena Island. He said his family has fished for oysters and shrimp on the river’s edge for longer than that.

He lives on inherited land along with his 10 brothers and sisters and their families, and he’s watched as his fishing-based livelihood and that of others has eroded with increasing development.

“So much regulation has run the poor man off the river. Used to be you could go out and catch a little something to feed your family or trade shrimp for peas to somebody who do farming. They limit you on the shrimp you can catch. They limit you on the fish you can catch. They limit you on the oyster you can go out there and get. It’s a mess.”

Besides that, he said, tourists are over-fishing for oysters and shrimp, and land-clearing for expensive homes is removing oyster and shrimp habitat along the river’s edge.

Increasing fees, taxes and development pressure are placing the largest challenges on maintaining the Gullah presence on the sea islands, he said. On islands such as Hilton Head or Kiawah, the Gullah people have disappeared, with few exceptions.

A Johns Island-based non-profit organization has been working to stem the tide of families feeling forced to sell to developers. The Center for Heirs’ Property Preservation has cleared 215 titles for families since 2005 over the 15 counties it serves, said Jennie Stephens, the center’s executive director.

The group helps families obtain clear land titles, educates communities on the dangers of oral wills and helps heirs property landowners establish income-producing uses for their land such as sustainable forestry.

At least 108,000 acres of heirs property remains in the South Carolina coastal region. When natural disasters such as hurricanes Matthew and Florence hit the area, heirs properties didn’t qualify for FEMA assistance because they had no clear ownership title, Stephens said.

By that time it was too late for her center to clear their titles in time, she said.

Sen. Tim Scott, R-S.C., inserted language into the Farm Bill approved by Congress in December that set aside money to help heirs property owners obtain farm loans and to clear land ownership issues.

Those measures lend hope to families such as Atkins’. He hopes one day to pass down his share of his family’s land to his children or grandchildren.

Despite the challenges, Queen Quet said the embrace from Gullah people of their history and culture over the past few decades can be seen in Gullah people who have begun to speak the dialect more openly and have begun to open businesses with “Gullah” or “Geechee” in the title.

Where once school-bound children abandoned the dialect, told it was backwards or broken English, students now speak it proudly.

Much of that re-embrace has to do with the work of Gullah activists such as Goodwine or Zenobia Harper, a Georgetown woman who is a docent at Hopsewee Plantation, a former rice plantation, and has started the Gullah Preservation Society of Georgetown County.

Harper walks visitors up the creaky wooden steps to the second-floor Rice Museum and shares a fuller history of rice cultivation in Georgetown. Or she leads them on a tour of the plantation to share her ancestors’ history. She tells visitors of the wealth of knowledge and culture of those who created those cash crops and of the way the Gullah culture first developed under those harsh circumstances as those disparate African people became “a people in the New World and tried to figure out how to mesh together all of those traditions and languages and religious beliefs… under extremely hostile situations.”

“I’ve been trying really hard to get an expansion of the narrative so that when people come out they’re not just focused on the planter-class narrative,” Harper said while standing next to one of two remaining structures that served as slave cabins on the plantation.

Louise Cohen carries on the Gullah culture in Hilton Head, where she’s restored her father’s 1930s one-bedroom house into a museum on the land where he lived and she was raised. Gated communities and giant resorts stand just down the street, but the Gullah survive, one generation passing its traditions to the next.

And in Georgetown, Natalie Daise sits and paints inside an old red-brick building on the city’s main drag where oral history says slaves once changed hands. Daise and her husband, Ron, starred in the mid-90s Nickelodeon television series “Gullah Gullah Island,” which has been partly credited with bringing awareness of the Gullah culture to national exposure along with the 1991 film “Daughters of the Dust,” written and directed by Julie Dash. Beyonce used imagery from Dash’s movie in her 2016 visual album Lemonade.

Daise’s husband wasn’t allowed to speak Gullah at home, she said. It had been trained out of him. They weren’t aware that the creole language was “a sign of great creativity and the ability to adapt in difficult situations,” as Daise put it.

Then he wrote a book about it, began to share Gullah culture in schools and eventually landed on television.

“Where before, Gullah was a thing you didn’t want to be… now it’s like, ‘I’m Gullah,” Daise said. “I have such gratitude to see that embrace.”

Now, Daise’s children speak Gullah with friends, and her daughter, an Afro-futurist, says she wants to move the Gullah culture forward — not locked into a period during slavery or Reconstruction but adapting.

Or, as Dash’s character Viola Peazant in “Daughters of the Dust” says quoting Shakespeare, “What’s past is prologue.”

This is one of a series of stories celebrating Black History Month by telling the stories of South Carolina’s black leaders in sports, education, entertainment, business and politics.

Source: https://www.greenvilleonline.com/story/news/2019/02/04/south-carolina-gullah-people-embrace-distinct-culture-amid-new-challenges-african-place-america/2611047002/


Robert Mugabe’s Long Shadow

By The Editorial BoardJan. 28, 2019

A fuel price increase drew protesters this month in Harare, Zimbabwe.CreditCreditAaron Ufumeli/EPA, via Shutterstock

Reviving a country from the devastation and plunder of a dictator is a daunting challenge for the best intentioned of leaders. Whether it’s possible at all if the successor is a close comrade of the fallen despot is an open question. Zimbabwe, where 37 years of misrule by Robert Mugabe were finally ended in a palace coup 14 months ago led by his vice president and onetime enforcer, Emmerson Mnangagwa, is a case in point.

This month, after President Mnangagwa raised the price of gasoline by 150 percent, protesters hit the streets. Mr. Mnangagwa arguably had no choice, since the government could not continue subsidizing fuel, and the protests were inevitable. The problem was that security forces replied with all the viciousness of the Mugabe era — a crackdown like what Mr. Mnangagwa used to mete out when he was in charge of internal security and earned the nickname “Crocodile.” Soldiers and unidentified thugs went door to door in Harare beating and arresting scores of people at random; 12 shooting deaths were reported; the internet was shut down.

The crackdown against protesters in Zimbabwe was violent.CreditPhilimon Bulawayo/Reuters

Mr. Mnangagwa was away on a fund-raising tour when the violence broke out. When he cut short the trip and returned, he promised to investigate the actions of the security forces and to open a dialogue with political, civic and religious leaders. Whether he ordered the crackdown remains unclear; one rumor is that his vice president, Constantino Chiwenga, a hard-line former commander of the army who backed Mr. Mnangagwa in the coup, was trying to undermine the president for his own ends.

It almost doesn’t matter. What does is that many Zimbabweans — and potential international investors — concluded that things had not changed with the exit of Mr. Mugabe. The ZANU-PF political machine that the old dictator ran since independence in 1980 was still in command and up to its old ways.

There was a moment of hope when Mr. Mnangagwa, backed by the military, ousted Mr. Mugabe. People danced in the streets — anything was better than the enfeebled nonagenarian autocrat who had all but destroyed the economy of a country rich in resources and human potential. The new president donned a bright scarf in the colors of the Zimbabwe flag (which he has worn ever since) and promptly lifted much of the petty oppression and harassment that had been the norm. A few weeks later he was in Davos, spreading the word that Zimbabwe was “open for business.” At home, he declared that “the people’s voice is the voice of God,” and he promised free elections.

Emmerson Mnangagwa continues to wear a scarf in the colors of the Zimbabwe flag.CreditJekesai Njikizana/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The doubts set in with those elections, held last July 30. Mr. Mnangagwa was elected to a full term, and international observers declared the vote a marked improvement over elections under Mr. Mugabe, which, granted, is not saying much. But the 40-year-oldchallenger, Nelson Chamisa, claimed fraud, and when his supporters gathered in protests, government forces crushed them mercilessly.

The economic challenges before Zimbabwe are enormous: vast debts, a battered infrastructure, hyperinflation, soaring unemployment. Confronting them will require foreign aid and investment, lifting the international sanctions imposed during Mr. Mugabe’s rule and restoring a glimmer of optimism for the future in a population that will be asked to make more sacrifices, like the fuel price increase, before things can get better. Under American law, removing sanctionsrequires a nonpartisan army and respect for the rights and freedoms of all people.

It is far from clear whether Mr. Mnangagwa or ZANU-PF are up to the challenge. But if they have any hope of surviving in office or lifting Zimbabwe out of the mess they helped create under Mr. Mugabe, the time to start is now, by immediately reining in the security forces and opening the dialogue Mr. Mnangagwa has pledged with the opposition and civil society. The United States and other potential donors could create an incentive by preparing a major package of assistance once the Zimbabwe government shows it is really committed to change.

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/28/opinion/zimbabwe-mnangagwa-mugabe.html


British Lord suggests recolonizing Zimbabwe to end crisis

By  on January 23, 2019 — In the UK House of Lords, the crisis in Zimbabwe came up, and Lord Adrian Palmer suggested recolonising Zimbabwe as a solution to the crisis. The insensitive statement was seemingly made in jest, but it has incensed many Africans, with some calling the remark unacceptable.

File picture: Zimbabwean anti-riot police chase protesters in Harare, Zimbabwe during a strike in 2016. Photo: ANP/AFP. Wilfred Kajese.

Just this week, Italy’s Deputy Prime Minister Luigi Di Maio condemned France for its continuous colonisation of Africa. In the British House of Lords, the crisis in Zimbabwe came up, and the suggested solution was shocking. Lord Adrian Palmer asked the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and United Nations Tariq Mahmood Ahmad if he had “considered the idea of recolonizing Zimbabwe. It’s tragic to see what’s going on.” The question was welcomed with laughter by those in the House of Lords. In response Lord Ahmad said, “I have to be very honest as I always am, that is not an option I have personally considered.”

There is nothing funny about colonisation; not even the idea or thought of recolonizing another country should be tolerated. While colonisation totally changed the lives of Africans drastically for the negative, the British and other European powers gained from it. Their economies were founded on slave trade and colonialism. Africans had their lands snatched, resources plundered, their women raped, their children killed, their languages erased, their culture distorted or expunged, their skin colour demonised and their religion declared inferior. Colonisation, more than 100 years later has its tentacles sprouting all over the continent.

 

While the Zimbabwean situation is of grave concern, it is equally important to remind those with hidden motives that the crisis has to be addressed by Africans. The time for foreign intervention and solutions is long gone, the results of foreign intervention are there for all to see in Libya. The time for internal reflection and strong African brotherhood is now. Zimbabwe’s crisis is not restricted to Zimbabwe, and if a British Lord, in 2019, can suggest recolonisation to solve the crisis in Zimbabwe, then then whole of Europe can equally propose recolonisation to solve Africa’s problems. The same tactic Lord Palmer’s father and grandfather made, of seemingly helping with giving a solution is being repeated here.

While the House of Lords in the United Kingdom can make light of colonialism, we on the continent know how much the fabric of our society has been destroyed. While laughter fills their chambers with the idea of recolonizing another African country, it is a statement that African presidents must consider as an attack on their sovereignty. It is from laughter and jokes that truths are gotten.

The role of the African Union is needed more than ever on the continent. It is unfortunate that the calibre of African leaders that would have stamped their foot down against neo-colonialism in all its forms were assassinated. While This Is Africa strongly condemns the statement of Lord Palmer, we call on the African Union to play its leading role on the continent and in solving the crises on the continent.

Source: https://thisisafrica.me/british-lord-suggests-recolonizing-zimbabwe-to-end-crisis


The Gambia River bridge set to end ‘centuries’ of trade chaos with Senegal

  • By Omar Wally, 23 January 2019
Photo showing the bridge over theImage copyright AFP

A new bridge spanning the River Gambia is set to revolutionise travel and trade in the region.

The Gambia is a thin sliver of land either side of the eponymous river, surrounded on three sides by Senegal.

The 1.9km (1.2 miles) Senegambia bridge near Farafenni links the two halves of The Gambia, as well as allowing people from the north of Senegal to reach the southern Senegalese province of Casamance with ease.

Aerial view of people crossing the Farafenni Bridge after its inauguration by Senegal's president and Gambia's President on 21 January 2019, in FarafenniImage copyright AFP

Up until now, people have had to use an unreliable ferry crossing or take the long route round The Gambia. Lorry drivers could spend days, and sometimes a week, in a queue waiting to cross meaning that perishable goods could spoil.

On Monday, people took the opportunity to make the crossing over the bridge for the first time.

People crossing the bridgeImage copyright AFP

It should now be possible to travel from Senegal’s capital, Dakar, to Ziguinchor in Casamance in about five hours, rather than a full day, or sometimes even longer.

Map showing the location of the new bridge
Presentational white space

Celebrations broke out when the crossing, which took seven years to build, was formally opened by Gambia’s President Adama Barrow and Senegal’s President Macky Sall.

Woman with flags dancingImage copyright AFP

One of Africa’s most famous stars, Senegalese musician Youssou Ndour performed for the crowds.

Senegalese singer Youssou Ndour performs during the inauguration of the Farafenni Bridge on 21 January 2019 in FarafenniImage copyright AFP

“I have been using this route for the past 15 years,” one driver told the BBC. “Today, I thank God, the hurdles that have been experiencing over the years have finally come to end.

“Also, the bridge will cement the relationship between the two countries.”

Man dancingImage copyright AFP

“At times I [used to] spend 10 to 20 days waiting for the ferry to cross,” another driver said. “Goods got spoiled, it didn’t only affect the drivers but the businesses.”

There had been a plan to build the bridge since the 1970s, but it was delayed as relations between the neighbours were sometimes strained.

President Sall (second left) thanked the African Development Bank, which helped fund the construction, and paid tribute to “the Gambian people for the great achievement we made together”.

Presidents cutting the ribbonImage copyright AFP

President Barrow (right) said the bridge “ends centuries of travel difficulties”.

Senegal's President Macky Sall (L) and Gambia's President Adama Barrow (R) wave as they inaugurate a bridge in FarafenniImage copyright AFP

At the moment, small cars that use the bridge are charged $5 (£4), lorries and other heavy vehicles will be able to cross from July.

Words by Omar Wally, pictures from AFP.

 

Source: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-46973684


Flooding in Mozambique as Tropical Cyclone Desmond makes landfall

Tropical Cyclone Desmond causes widespread flooding in Beira. [Credit: @vw_ben]
Tropical Cyclone Desmond causes widespread flooding in Beira. [Credit: @vw_ben]

Tropical Cyclone Desmond formed in the Mozambique Channel on Sunday night and drifted slowly northwest towards the coast.

Fortunately, the winds in the upper atmosphere were much stronger than those near the surface, which hampered the storm’s growth and prevented it from becoming too intense.

This ensured the winds were not too strong when the storm made landfall, but the rain was still extremely heavy and the seas very rough.

The storm hit the coast about 40km to the south of Chinde, 200km to the north of Beira, but the worst of the rain was to the west of the storm’s centre. Beira, the fourth largest city in Mozambique, was badly hit.

Some 277 millimetres of rain was reported in Beira in the 24 hours until 06:00 GMT on Tuesday, more than the 250mm expected in the entire month of January. And the rain continues to fall.

Large waves smashed over the top of sea defences and the torrential rain transformed roads into rivers.

Cars were submerged up to their windows and dirty floodwater rushed into people’s homes and businesses.

The remnants of Tropical Cyclone Desmond are expected to bring more flooding to central Mozambique and southern Malawi as it disintegrates above the region. Over the next 24 hours, some places could see as much as 200mm more rain, and it looks like Madagascar could be hit by even worse conditions.

Tropical Cyclone Desmond did not hit Madagascar, but it did enhance the rains in the northwest of the island and there is more severe weather on its way.

Another circulation in the Mozambique Channel is expected to develop over the coming days. This system is expected to track south, off the coast of Madagascar, and is likely to pull a trail of heavy downpours across the northwest of the island.

This would bring further torrential rain to a region that is already waterlogged, which could easily lead to flooding and landslides.

 

Source: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/01/flooding-mozambique-tropical-cyclone-desmond-landfall-190122093541944.html


A Black Poet Speaks: An Interview with Haki R. Madhubuti

, FEB 14, 2018
Haki Madhubuti Photo

 A photo of Haki R. Madhubuti from the inside cover of his best-selling critical work ‘Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous?’ (Photo: Third World Press Foundation Library)

On February 23, 1942, a black boy was born in Little Rock, Arkansas and into the violent repression of the Jim Crow South. Seeking a better life, his family waded into the stream of millions of black people moving north during the Great Migration. No one could have known that boy would grow up to become a celebrated poet, publisher and educator and a driving force of black art and culture starting in the 1960s and through today.

The boy’s name was Don L. Lee. He adopted Chicago as his permanent home and met important artists and mentors. He became a leading organizer and artist in local black arts and his reputation as a poet grew nationally. In 1966 he published his first book, Think Black and sold it on street corners and at his readings. In 1967, Lee invested a $400 honorarium he’d earned and founded Third World Press with the help of Johari Amini and Carolyn Rodgers. The new press published poets, historians, scholars, novelists and essayists, including both established and emerging black writers. It became the most significant literary institution of the Black Arts Movement. In addition to being a publisher, his own creative production generated an extensive body of work that includes, poetry, essays and a memoir.

Biography: Your accomplishments are inspiring, but like Maya AngelouMalcolm XJames Baldwin and so many other black artists and leaders, your story began deep down in the most vulnerable of black communities.

Haki Madhubuti: I grew up in a poor black community in Detroit. My mother Maxine Graves Lee, struggled to provide for her children while battling the pressures of racism and poverty and eventually falling victim to drugs and forced into the sex trade.

Biography: You’ve mentioned in your lectures and writing that black literature saved your life.

Haki Madhubuti: My mother saw something in me. I was a creative child, interested in ideas and words but it didn’t mean anything because there wasn’t a process for me to develop. Looking back on it, she did her best to point me toward something positive and hoped I’d find my way. She sent me to the library to find refuge and Black Boy, Richard Wright’s powerful memoir about growing up black and poor in the segregated South and the racist North. I read it that night and returned to the library week after week, finding the black voices speaking from and about the African-American experience. Art in the forms of black literature, music and visual art, dance and black theater saved my life.

Biography: While in high school, you suffered a traumatic event.

Haki Madhubuti: The relative peace of my sanctuary in black literature was shattered when my mother was beaten to death by a man she’d become involved with. I was 16 and had to take care of myself. I moved to Chicago to live with a complete stranger, my father. I got a room at the YMCA, finished high school, and was always hungry. I enlisted in the U.S. Army because I needed to eat every day and the army at that time was a poor boys’ answer to unemployment. At basic training, I had a copy of Paul Robeson’s Here I Stand which enraged my sergeant. It helped me understand that books and ideas are dangerous.

Haki R. Madhubuti

 Haki Madhubuti sits in the offices of the Chicago Defender newspaper during an interview, Chicago, Illinois, late 1960s. (Photo: Robert Abbott Sengstacke/Getty Images)

Biography: When did know you were a poet/writer?

Haki Madhubuti: As it is today, I saw myself first as a poet. It was most like the music we produce and I was a student of black music, especially jazz and doo-wop. By the time I was discharged from the army I was becoming more certain of my own poetic voice.

Biography: In 1963, after the army you moved to Chicago.

Haki Madhubuti: It seemed like a place where I could make a new life. With the GI Bill I went to college, but my most important education came from several great mentors. I met the visual artist Margaret and writer Charles Burroughs who were also institution builders and founders of the DuSable Museum of African American History. They taught me the importance of independent black institutions. Gwendolyn Brooks, the Poet Laureate of Illinois also became a mentor and what I consider, my cultural mother. It was a great honor, after I’d started Third World Press to become her publisher.

Biography: You are considered one of the principal architects and key figures of the 1960s Black Arts Movement, that Larry Neal described as “…the aesthetic and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept. As such, it envisions an art that speaks directly to the needs and aspirations of Black America.”

Haki Madhubuti: As a black poet, seeking answers and solutions for black people in the 1960s I was drawn to the ideas of Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the African liberation struggle. Developing a black consciousness of self-respect, engaging in a struggle for human rights, self-determination and empowerment had an incredibly strong appeal. Those ideas were reflected in my poetry and the work we were doing to build the local and national community of like-minded black artists. That movement included people like Amiri BarakaSonia Sanchez, Larry Neal, Jayne Cortez, Gil Scott Heron and hundreds of others. Chicago was one of the urban centers of the Black Arts Movement. There was an emphasis on high quality, often experimental, cultural production and institution building. After Dudley Randall accepted [my work] for publication and wrote the introduction to my book Black Pride, his Broadside Press of Detroit, Michigan became the model for Third World Press. That is one of the reasons I founded Third World Press in 1967.

Haki Madhubuti Photo

 Dr. Haki Madhubuti celebrates 50 years of publishing at a gala.

Biography: Third World Press/Third World Press Foundation is now the oldest continuously publishing independent black press in the United States and possibly the world . . .

Haki Madhubuti: We’ve been able to survive when many of the Black Arts Movement institutions did not. We have published hundreds of established and emerging black and white writers and make a significant contribution to black literature. We’ve published poets, historians, educators, novelists, psychiatrists and playwrights. We have a multi-generational roster of writers and consciously work to publish black women. Our authors include Gwendolyn Brooks, Gil Scott Heron, Sonia Sanchez, Amiri Baraka, Pearl Cleage, Bakari Kitwana, Marc Lamont Hill, Michael Simanga, Edmund Gordon and hundreds of others.

Biography: …In addition to the more than two dozen books you’ve written.

Haki Madhubuti: I believe in building and supporting black institutions, I’ve only published with black publishers, Broadside Press, founded by the poet Dudley Randall in Detroit and Third World Press. I still see myself first as a poet, but I’ve also written several books of essays. I’m trying to focus on writing my memoirs. I started with the first book, Yellow Black: the First Twenty-One Years of a Poet’s Life, A Memoir. My best known books are Don’t CryScream! [as] Don L. Lee (over 75 thousand in print), and Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? as Haki R. Madhubuti (over one million in print).

Biography: As a professor at Chicago State University, you established the Gwendolyn Brooks Center for Black Literature and Creative Writing and founded the annual Gwendolyn Brooks Black Writer’s Conference. With other professors you also established the first MFA in Creative Writing focusing on black literature in the nation in addition to mentoring emerging black poets and writers. You were named the Ida B. Wells-Barnett University Professor at DePaul University and have received numerous honors including induction into the Little Rock, Arkansas Hall of Fame and honorary doctorates from Spelman College and DePaul University.

You have also been involved in creating independent black schools on the south side of Chicago.

Haki Madhubuti: My wife and I have been advocating for a new Black education for decades. Safisha is a globally recognized scholar in education. With her brilliance and leadership (I always tell young men to follow my lead and marry a woman smarter than you) we’ve been able to establish, grow and maintain several schools, including the Institute of Positive Education, New Concept SchoolBetty Shabazz Academy and Barbara Ann Sizemore Academy. The creation and development of independent black schools is crucial to the development of independent, culturally conscious black people who will continue to offer productive alternatives and practical answers.

Haki Madhubuti

 Dr. Madhubuti’s 75th birthday celebration.

Biography: With your legacy as a poet, writer, institution builder, publisher, educator, political activist, what is next?

Haki Madhubuti: Ensuring the press and schools survive and grow. We’ve changed our business model; the press is now a non-profit [called] Third World Press Foundation, and we have engaged a multi-generational group of scholars, writers and activists to develop and implement our plan which we expect to be completed this year. I am busy writing, poems, the next book of memoir and new essays. There is a new recording of my poetry with the amazing Jazz flutist Nicole Mitchell (Liberation Narratives), who used to work with us at Third World Press. And I’m really trying to spend more time with my family including the newest members, our grandchildren. I continue to do, to the best of my ability, that which is good, just, correct and right, with a sense of integrity and honor. Remember, the most liberated people in the world, and most certainly in this culture, are artists. Art saved my life and can do the same for others. The struggle continues.

Source: https://www.biography.com/news/haki-madhubuti-interview-black-history-month?


NFL Star Andrew Hawkins Graduates with 4.0 GPA and Masters Degree from Ivy League Uni “I’m just as smart as I am quick.”

NFL Wide Receiver Andrew Hawkins has graduated from the Ivy League Columbia University with a masters degree in Sports Management, and a 4.0 GPA at aged 31 showing that it’s never too late to go back to school and that you can acheive whatever you set out to do!

He told the press,

“Man, listen. I’m just as smart as I am quick. If you still have the stereotype of the unintelligent black male athlete in your mind, that’s on you. That’s your karma. I will put my math skills up against anyone. And you’re still not going to outrun me unless your name is Usain Bolt.”

After the graduation ceremony he headed straight off to NFL’s Broadcast Boot Camp at Mount Laurel in New Jersey, missing the commencement toasts! It never stops! Amazing inspiration!


Image src: https://www.flickr.com/photos/edrost88/14576293868/sizes/o/in/photostream/

 

Source: https://urbanintellectuals.com/2017/05/23/nfl-star-andrew-hawkins-graduates-4-0-gpa-masters-degree-ivy-league-uni-im-just-smart-quick/


The Transatlantic Slave Trade – Africans Urged to ‘Come Home’

Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos
Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos
 The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.

(Read the entire series: Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5, Part 6Part 7Part 8Part 9, Part 10Part 11)

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

“A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.” —Marcus Garvey

“For Africa to me… is more than a glamorous fact. It is a historical truth. No man can know where he is going unless he knows exactly where he has been and exactly how he arrived at his present place.” — Maya Angelou

The Transatlantic Slave Trade started with slave ships, whips, chains and a most demonic kind of evil: Europeans and others hunting down Africans like animals.

The result: an estimated 12 million enslaved Africans were shipped as cargo across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries – and, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, that figure represented just one stage of the slave trade.

By the 1480s, Portuguese ships were already transporting Africans for use as slaves on sugar plantations in the Cape Verde and Madeira islands in the eastern Atlantic.

Spanish conquistadors took African slaves to the Caribbean after 1502, but Portuguese merchants continued to dominate the transatlantic slave trade for another century and a half, operating from their bases in the Congo-Angola area along the west coast of Africa.

The Dutch became the primary slave traders during the 1600s. In the century that followed, British and French merchants controlled about half of the transatlantic slave trade, taking a large percentage of their human cargo from the region of West Africa between the Senegal and Niger rivers, according to Britannica.

Probably no more than a few hundred thousand Africans were taken to the Americas before 1600.

However, in the 17th century, demand for slave labor rose sharply with the growth of sugar plantations in the Caribbean and tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region of North America.

The largest numbers of slaves were taken to the Americas during the 18th century, when, according to historians’ estimates, nearly three-fifths of the total volume of the transatlantic slave trade took place.

Today, as the world takes note of the anniversary of the slave trade [500 years for some, 400 for others], a rousing call to Africans throughout the diaspora has gone out. “Everyone agrees that all that is needed for Africa to take her rightful place on the world stage is for her children to come back home,” said Her Excellence Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao, the African Union Ambassador to the United States of America.

Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos
Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos

This month, celebrities, including Boris Kodjoe, Idris Elba and Naomi Campbell, traveled to Ghana to visit The Akwamuhene Odeneho Kwafo Akoto III at the Bogyawe Palace, Akwamufie, where he has conferred a citation for “leading our kinsmen home.”

“My special thanks go to Boris Kodjoe and his colleagues for coordinating this all-important trip which I believe is by divine design,” The Akwamuhene said.

“Today forms part of the new awakening. The beginning of our joint resolve to create a continent that we can all feel pride in calling our ancestral home. In many ways, we are grateful for the opportunity to heal and grow together as people united by both blood and purpose.”

Ghana’s President H.E. Nana Akufo-Addo, has reportedly planned a number of events for 2019 in commemoration of the anniversary of the transatlantic slave trade. The commemoration began with the “Full Circle Festival” which brought numerous celebrities and others who visited historical sites and attended a breakfast hosted by the president.

The festival was established to honor African ancestry by celebrating the continent’s heritage and generational legacy. The “Coming Home” theme is expected to continue throughout the year.

Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos
Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos

“This celebration of ‘Coming Home’ is one that should be encouraged and promoted across the global black community,” said Roman Debotch, owner and contributor of the website, Black Excellence, a platform used to shed light on noteworthy achievements in the Black community.

“I hear time and time again from black Americans who traveled to Africa about how connected they felt and how different they found whatever country they traveled to from the images of Africa they grew up with,” Debotch said.

The transatlantic slave trade still has an effect on the black community in America and ‘Coming Home’ should show and teach black Americans that their history doesn’t begin as slaves, she said.

“There is a rich and vibrant culture and history that took place centuries before and after the transatlantic slave trade. Although they might feel cut off from it, it is at least a good move to visit these countries and know what exists there,” Debotch said.

Jeanette Brown, founder of Excellence & Presence Communications, said going back to Africa means an invitation to return to where her ancestors are from. “It cancels out all the negative images I grew up seeing on TV and the stereotypes that African Americans are not welcomed in Africa, as we are ‘not the same,’” Brown said.

Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos
Photos from the Full Circle Festival in Ghana/Courtesy Photos

Further, “returning to Africa should mean that there’s a resurgence in wanting to know history and it’s a movement that will bring everyone of African ancestry together as opposed to further separating them,” she said.

“Yes, the transatlantic slave trade effects still reach down today. The effects become more apparent the more we learn and uncover,” Brown said. “The more we are educated on our history we will be able to unpack our similarities and differences. We should also be careful of who is sharing our history with us.”

Brown continued:

“In 2019, we are still learning about our origins. Crimes are still being labeled ‘the worst in history…’ and none of those statements end with ‘transatlantic slave trade.’ The invite home is a way for me to support my brothers and sisters.

“If we understand where we come from, we will know where we can go.”

Marketing executive turned actor/filmmaker, Shantel Moses said she recently performed a “23-and-Me DNA Test” which revealed her African heritage.

Moses, who describes herself as African Caribbean American, lives in Brooklyn, N.Y., and said she now feels a greater urgency to visit Africa. “I’ve traveled to over 40 countries, heavily concentrated in Europe and Latin America. It’s now time for me to come home,” Moses said.

“Programs to entice people of African Heritage are super critical to help bridge the gap within the diaspora, whether we are African American, Afro Latino, Afro Australian — the power and beauty of us as Black people holds special power that can be leveraged by the continent,” she said.

“I don’t know what I will feel when I go home, but I can’t wait to do so. I’m hoping to go to Ethiopia in 2019. While my roots are more in the West African region – I’m 34 percent Nigerian, I eagerly await the joy of touching down on my ancestors’ soil.”

Source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/the-transatlantic-slave-trade-africans-urged-to-come-home


Five Hundred Years Later, Are we still Slaves?

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade. This is Part 5 in the ongoing series.

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade. This is Part 5 in the ongoing series.

The National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) has launched a global news feature series on the history, contemporary realities and implications of the transatlantic slave trade.
(Read the entire series: Part 1Part 2Part 3Part 4Part 5, Part 6Part 7Part 8Part 9, Part 10Part 11)

By Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent
@StacyBrownMedia

“I prefer to be true to myself, even at the hazard of incurring the ridicule of others. Rather than to be false, and to incur my own abhorrence.”  — Frederick Douglass

“Ignorance is the greatest slave master in the universe… The greatest prison anyone can escape from is ignorance.” — Matshona Dhliwayo

“These negroes aren’t asking for no nation. They wanna crawl back on the plantation.” — Malcolm X

Five Centuries ago – on August 18, 1518 to be exact – the King of Spain, Charles I, issued a charter authorizing the transportation of slaves direct from Africa to the Americas, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, or UNESCO.

Five hundred years later, the devastating effects remain.

Some argue, however, that slavery continues to exist – in that far too many African Americans possess a slave’s mentality. Books on the topic are a plenty.

Harvard psychiatrist Alvin Poussaint wrote extensively about the high suicide rates among black males which doubled over a 15-year period beginning in 1980. “African-American young men may see the afterlife as a better place,” Poussaint wrote in his book, “Lay My Burden Down: Suicide and the Mental Health Crisis among African-Americans.”

In her book, “Black Pain: It Just Looks Like We’re Not Hurting,” famed author and social worker, Terrie M. Williams, writes about the “high toll of hiding the pain associated with the black experience” on mental health.

Portland State University scholar Joy DeGruy also tried explaining the slave mentality in her controversial theory, “Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome.”

The Urban Dictionary and other works says that a slave mentality is one of feeling inferior or of feeling lost without hope, a feeling that we do not have the power to significantly alter our own circumstances.

“Another sad symptom of having a slave mentality is believing that white people are superior,” writes Kuuleme T. Stephens noted in her blog. “A person conditioned to quietly, and without objection, accept harmful circumstances for themselves as the natural order of things. …They’re also conditioned to accept their master’s view and beliefs, about themselves, and strive to get others, within their group, to accept their master’s view.

“I often hear people make the claim that blacks were better off when they were slaves. I myself have been known to say such things when people piss me off and respond out of ignorance to a posting or article. My reason for making such an argument is if black Americans are not going to stop living in the past and blaming other for their problems, we will never move forward as a people. …To maintain a belief that you are owed something and entitled to things when you are doing nothing to help yourself is absurd.

“To stay ignorant as a lifestyle choice and have others (the government) take care of you and tell you what to do is exactly what the slaves did, and some continued to do even after they were freed. …My great grandmother, whose father and grandfather were slaves, has a slavery mentality because they were raised by slaves and their opinions and beliefs were passed down as such.”

Even now, millions of Americans of recognizably African descent languish in societal backwaters, according to historians and experts on slavery. And, the dichotomy that exists between those who view living in America as a struggle to survive and those that see it as a land of opportunity has driven a wedge between many in the African American community.

“We’re absolutely still slaves today,” said Sean XG Mitchell, a Hip-Hop activist and author of several books on the black experience, including “The African American Spiritual Practice of Seven.”

“We’re the only race of people who do not have a cultural orientation regarding our identity. Every powerful and successful race and/or ethnic group of people have an orientation that centers around language, education, religion, names and customs which is where their unity, self-respect, pride and dignity-the prerequisite of power- comes from,” he said.

As a result of slavery, African Americans do not have a cultural orientation that centers around their historical experience as a people. “We see the outcome in the deficiency of our social and economic development. To a certain extent, we’ve been fighting racism and injustice all wrong which is why it’s been an ongoing issue for over [500] years.  Real empowerment comes from culture and until we understand and embrace what it means to be an African people will always be slaves,” Mitchell said.

“I believe there is a dividing legacy of slavery that have pitted certain segments of the black community against each other,” Mitchell continues. “We have an obvious color barrier between light skin and dark skin, creating somewhat of a caste system that gives privilege to the lighter shade in most cases whether we’re referring to employment opportunities or relationships.

“It’s all a fallout of slavery because slaves often were pitted against each other as a means of preventing unity.”

During slavery, the dark-skinned blacks worked in the fields while light-skinned blacks worked in the house, hence the terms “field Negroes” and “house Negroes.”

“It got so bad, that not only did the slave owner, who was often responsible for the lighter shade of brown his slaves had, give lighter-skinned blacks more respect, but so did the dark-skinned blacks,” blogger Jasmyne Cannick writes in an opinion column for NPR.

This was best illustrated in Spike Lee’s 1988 film “School Daze” in the scene set in a beauty salon between the “jiggaboos,” the darker-skinned blacks with “nappy” hair, and the “wannabes,” the lighter-skinned blacks with “straight” and often weaved hair.

“You know, I can’t think of one time that I witnessed or heard of white children taunting each other for being paler than the next, but I can think of numerous occasions where I have seen black children teasing each other for being ‘too black,’” Cannick said.

“And while our lighter skin shades can be attributed to the Massuh’s preference for his female black slaves over his own wife, we can’t blame the Massuh for us continuing to feed into the hype that light is good and dark is bad,” she said.

Post-slavery, post-Jim Crow, and post-Civil Rights, African Americans haven’t reached their full potential in part because of an acute lack of effort with too many wallowing in self-pity, say those who’ve argued against reparations.

Walter Williams, an economics professor at George Mason University in Washington, D.C. and an opponent of reparations, suggested that African-Americans have actually benefited from the legacy of slavery.

“Almost every black American’s income is higher as a result of being born in the United States than any country in Africa,” Williams, who is black, told ABC News.

“Most black Americans are middle-class,” Williams said, claiming that the U.S. has made “significant” investments in African Americans since the slave trade ended.

“The American people have spent $6.1 trillion in the name of fighting poverty,” he said. “We’ve had all kinds of programs trying to address the problems of discrimination. America has gone a long way.”

Countering that argument, others said America has continued to do a disservice to black Americans, prolifically using the criminal justice system as tool akin to slavery that almost assures a lifetime of dependency on taxpayers.

“My expertise is the criminal justice system, which has long been used to intimidate, oppress, and abuse African-Americans. While officially our laws today are color-blind, which is different from the time of slavery, as implemented and used they aren’t,” said Roy L. Steinheimer Jr., a professor of Law at Washington and Lee University in Virginia.

What about black on black crime?

According to an evidence brief from the Vera Institute of Justice, titled, “An Unjust Burden: The Disparate Treatment of Black Americans in the Criminal Justice System,” and a report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that most violence occurs between victims and offenders of the same race, regardless of race.

The rate of both black-on-black and white-on-white nonfatal violence declined 79 percent between 1993 and 2015. The number of homicides involving both a black victim and black perpetrator fell from 7,361 in 1991 to 2,570 in 2016.

The issue isn’t the crime, it’s the selective disproportionately harsher punishment and sentencing of African Americans.

“Some of the laws, such as those disenfranchising convicted felons, have their origin, if not in the immediate aftermath of the civil war, then in the era that saw the emergence of the KKK and white supremacy. They were clearly intended to keep African-Americans and likely, though to a lesser extent poor whites, from the ballot box,” Steinheimer said.

Meanwhile, some of the newer laws that have negatively affected African-Americans still appear to result from some underlying beliefs that go back to the times of slavery.

“Interestingly that thinking has survived even during times of mass migration, which is presumably indicative of how deep-seated it is in American culture and law,” the professor continued.

The “broad scope of the criminal justice system reinforces the wealth disparity between white and black by making those caught up in it ever poorer and serves to drive even some of the better-of people caught up in it into poverty,” Steinheimer said.

“The economic impact resulting from slavery therefore gets magnified and reinforced by our criminal justice system, which increasingly stacks fines and fees,” he said.

In a dissertation for the Brookings Institute, Glenn C. Loury wrote that the dream that race might someday become an insignificant category in our civic life now seems naively utopian.

In cities across the country, and in rural areas of the Old South, the situation of the black underclass and, increasingly, of the black lower working classes is bad and getting worse. Simply put, the playing field has never been level for black Americans and that has only worsened the mental health of the community. “No well-informed person denies this, though there is debate over what can and should be done about it,” Loury said.

“Nor do serious people deny that the crime, drug addiction, family breakdown, unemployment, poor school performance, welfare dependency, and general decay in these communities constitute a blight on our society virtually unrivaled in scale and severity by anything to be found elsewhere in the industrial West,” he said.

“Slavery is one of the foundational pillars of American society, propping up the nation starting in the earliest days of the Republic and touching the lives of everyone in America. And its legacy has been long lasting,” said Hasan Jeffries, a James Madison Montpelier historian and history professor at Ohio State University who specializes in contemporary black politics.

“The deeply rooted belief in white supremacy that justified slavery survived its abolition in 1865 and undergird the new systems of African American labor exploitation and social control, namely Jim Crow, that sought to replace what had been lost as a result of emancipation,” Jeffries said.

As a result, slavery has caused certain symptoms of dysfunction in the African community, which has been reinforced in each generation, according to historians at the African Holocaust Network.

The legacy of slavery has promoted and nursed the direct association between being African and being inferior. Being African and being unequal. Being African and being incapable and less worthy.

It also promotes ways of thinking which continue to impede growth and development, such as cultivating dependence and reactive behaviors, and more content to be at best an observer complaining about the world, instead of being a change agent in the world.

“The deterioration of the black American family is staggering,” Stephens said.

“If you ask a young black American what they want to be when they grow up, most will say they want to be a rapper/singer, football player, basketball player, or baseball player, and that is if they can tell you what they would like to be at all,” she said.

“No one tells them that only 0.03 percent make it to pro basketball, 0.08 percent make it pro football, and 0.45 percent make it pro baseball.

“We have a 40 percent dropout rate, for every 100,000 black men in the U.S., 4,777 are in prison or jail; for every 100,000 black American women, there are 743 in jail or prison, and 72 percent of black American women, and teens are unwed mothers.”

Historians at the James Madison Montpelier in Virginia said that it’s no accident that the U.S. Constitution opens with a message of inclusivity, establishing “justice” and ensuring “domestic tranquility” for the people.

However, it’s what that most famous preamble – and, indeed, the rest of the document – doesn’t address that’s more telling: The Constitution’s authors omit the vital distinction between their view of the differences between persons and property and, in doing so, ultimately protect one of history’s most oppressive institutions: Slavery.

source: https://www.blackpressusa.com/the-transatlantic-slave-trade-part-v-five-hundred-years-later-are-we-still-slaves/


Al Gore’s Firm Leads $100 Million Investment in African Outsourcing Startup

Software developers videoconferencing at the Nairobi, Kenya, office of Andela.
Software developers videoconferencing at the Nairobi, Kenya, office of Andela. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROOPA GOGINENI FOR BLOOMBERG BUSINESSWEEK

Outsourcing isn’t generally seen as the most high-minded of industries. But when the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the philanthropic organization backed by the wealth of Facebook’s founder, looked to write checks to startups, the first investment it led was for Andela, which places African computer programmers to work remotely for American corporations. By training Nigerian computer programmers, the thinking went, Andela’s office in Lagos would speed the development of the technology industry in those countries. “Technology is the exact opposite of an extractive industry,” says Jeremy Johnson, Andela’s chief executive officer. “Success begets success.”

Andela now operates in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda, and has about 1,100 developers on staff working for more than 200 companies, nearly 90 percent of which are located in the U.S. Now former U.S. Vice President Al Gore’s sustainability-focused investment firm, Generation Investment Management, is leading a $100 million funding round in the outsourcer, bringing Andela’s venture capital haul to date to $180 million.

  Generation’s interest in Andela parallels CZI’s—with the bonus, it says, that large-scale remote work could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. “Remote collaboration, and allowing people not to get on planes, obviously has carbon benefits,” says Lilly Wollman, who led the Andela investment. She expects the company to be placing 10,000 developers with clients within the next several years.
 relates to Al Gore’s Firm Leads $100 Million Investment in African Outsourcing Startup
An Andela employee at the Nairobi office. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROOPA GOGINENI FOR BLOOMBERG BUSINESSWEEK

Among the inevitable points of comparison for Andela are large Indian staffing firms such as Infosys Ltd.Wipro Ltd., and Tech Mahindra Ltd., which have grown into multibillion-dollar concerns by providing employers with low-cost programming talent. India’s IT companies have played a key role in the development of the country’s technology industry, but also have a reputation for handling mostly lower-skill projects. The businesses are controversial in the U.S., where critics accuse them of harming American workers by offshoring some work and abusing the H-1B visa program to undercut local wages.

 Andela’s executives and investors distance themselves from the classic outsourcing model. “You don’t have to do what India did,” says Johnson. He says Andela aims to compete more on quality than on price. Its developers are more tightly integrated into the operations of their clients than traditional offshore workers, and hired for a set period of time rather than specific projects. When Andela workers start assignments with new employers, they travel to their headquarters for weeklong visits. Some of the company’s clients have even begun to bolster Andela workers’ compensation with equity stakes, a key perk of Silicon Valley employment.
relates to Al Gore’s Firm Leads $100 Million Investment in African Outsourcing Startup
An Andela employee coding at the Nairobi office. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROOPA GOGINENI FOR BLOOMBERG BUSINESSWEEK

The idea for Andela started with a Nigerian online education startup called Fora. Iyinoluwa Aboyeji, one of Fora’s founders, said the company was struggling to raise capital. So they reached out to Johnson, whose own company, 2U, was based on a similar idea. At a meeting in New York, the group came up with the rough idea for Andela. Aboyeji returned to Lagos to start the company in a vacant duplex that an acquaintance let them use for free. Johnson initially intended to be an investor and board member, but soon ended up becoming the startup’s CEO instead. (Aboyeji left Andela in 2016.)

Andela’s distinguishing factor, according to Johnson, is the software it uses to assess applicants, train them, and then monitor their performance once they’re on the job. Andela uses data it culls from its clients to determine which computing languages and development skills are most in demand. Its training regimen also focuses on soft skills, such as how to handle workplace Slack chatter. Once developers go to work, Andela’s software produces regular reports on things like how long it takes each developer to write 100 lines of productive code (eight hours on average), or how many days per week an employee is contributing code. In addition to the developers working for clients, Andela employs 400 people to build its own software and manage its business operations.

relates to Al Gore’s Firm Leads $100 Million Investment in African Outsourcing Startup
Software developers at Andela’s office in Nairobi. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROOPA GOGINENI FOR BLOOMBERG BUSINESSWEEK

The Generation deal would be the third-largest venture investment ever for an African startup, according to research firm CB Insights. Andela’s status as an African company, however, is a matter of debate. CB Insights defines it as American, noting that its headquarters is on West 29th Street in Manhattan. Johnson says the company doesn’t really have a nationality. “If you ask where our headquarters is, I’d say the internet,” he says.

That answer doesn’t satisfy everyone in the African technology community. Critics in Lagos have complained that a Nigerian success story was erasedwith the arrival of Mark Zuckerberg and his money. “Now that the validation of Andela as a success is going global, Lagos has been reduced to one of the campuses of [a] New York-based startup,” Oo Nwoye, a prominent Nigerian entrepreneur, wrote in a 2016 essay.

Still, Andela is widely celebrated in Lagos. It accepts about 1 percent of applicants—a significantly lower rate than even the pickiest American universities—and its wages are generous by local standards. Developers who get into the program make four-year commitments to the firm, both to offset the cost of their training and because otherwise they’d become recruiting targets for foreign firms. Monicah Kwamboka, an Andela developer based in Nairobi and working at the American cybersecurity firm Cloudflare, says she plans to stay on even after her initial contract expires. “I feel like remote work is the future,” she says. “I see myself doing this for a long time.”

relates to Al Gore’s Firm Leads $100 Million Investment in African Outsourcing Startup
Andela employees during lunch at the office. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROOPA GOGINENI FOR BLOOMBERG BUSINESSWEEK

The attraction of skilled African developers to foreign employers extends beyond Andela, a dynamic with potentially negative local impact. Prosper Otemuyiwa, a former technical trainer at Andela, describes a common career progression for a Nigerian technologist. First, work at a local firm for relatively low pay while developing the skills to appeal to companies abroad. Then, either emigrate or find remote work for salaries dwarfing those available nearby.

Such patterns have put pressure on the Nigerian startups who were previously the only option for developers. “Before all the opportunities came by, the local companies were paying just local rates,” says Otemuyiwa, “and not just local rates, but poor local rates.” Johnson says Andela has highlighted an alternative to emigration.

Over the last year or so, Nigerian startups have significantly increased their own salaries and benefits packages, something they’ve been able to do in part because of an increase in foreign venture capital that successes like Andela have attracted. But Mark Essien, CEO of Hotels.ng, an online hotel-booking website based in Lagos, says international competition has made it harder for his company to attract local developers. “It’s tough to contain them at local jobs,” he says. “They go abroad or work remotely.”

 

Source: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-23/al-gore-s-firm-leads-100-million-round-in-african-startup-andela?


Top 6 Countries That Grew Filthy Rich From Enslaving Black People

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The United States of America

Slavery transformed America into an economic power. The exploitation of black people for free labor made the South the richest and most politically powerful region in the country. British demand for American cotton made the southern stretch of the Mississippi River the Silicon Valley of its era, boasting the single largest concentration of the nation’s millionaires.

But slavery was a national enterprise. Many firms on Wall Street such as JPMorgan Chase, New York Life and now-defunct Lehman Brothers made fortunes from investing in the slave trade the most profitable economic activity in New York’s 350 year history. Slavery was so important to the city that New York was one of the most pro-slavery urban municipalities in the North.

According to Harper’s magazine (November 2000), the United States stole an estimated $100 trillion for 222,505,049 hours of forced labor between 1619 and 1865, with a compounded interest of 6 percent.

Source: news.nationalgeographic.com

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England

Between 1761 and 1808, British traders hauled 1,428,000 African captives across the Atlantic and pocketed $96.5 million – about $13 billion in value today – from selling them as slaves.

From 1500 to 1860, by very modest estimations, around 12 million Africans were traded into slavery in the Americas. In British vessels alone, 3.25 million Africans were shipped. These voyages were often very profitable. For instance, in the 17th century, the Royal Africa Company could buy an enslaved African with trade goods worth $5 and sell that person in the Americas for $32, making an average net profit of 38 percent per voyage.

Slave-owning planters and merchants who dealt in slaves and slave produce were among the richest people in 18th-century Britain, but many other British citizens benefited from the human trafficking industry.

Profits from slavery were used to endow All Souls College, Oxford, with a splendid library; to build a score of banks, including the Bank of London and Barclays; and to finance the experiments of James Watt, inventor of the first efficient steam engine.

As the primary catalyst for the Industrial Revolution, the transatlantic slave trade provided factory owners who dealt in textiles, iron, glass and gun-making a mega-market in West Africa, where their goods were traded for slaves. Birmingham had over 4,000 gun-makers, with 100,000 guns a year going to slave-traders. The boom in manufacturing provided many jobs for ordinary people in Britain who, in addition to  working in factories, could be employed to build roads and bridges, and in whaling, mining, etc.

Source: bbc.co.uk

Source: revealinghistories.org.uk

Source: abolition.e2bn.org

 

slave pic

France

With over 1,600,000 enslaved Africans transported to the West Indies, France was clearly a major player in the trade. Its slave ports were a major contributor to the country’s economic advancements in the 18th century. Many of its cities on the west coast, such as Nantes, Lorient, La Rochelle, and Bordeaux, built their wealth through the major profits of triangular slave trade.

Between 1738 and 1745, from Nantes, France’s leading slave port,  55,000 slaves were taken to the New World in 180 ships. From 1713 to 1775, nearly 800 vessels in the slave trade sailed from Nantes.

By the late 1780s, French Saint Domingue, which is modern-day Haiti, became the richest and most prosperous colony in the West Indies, cementing its status as a vital port in the Americas for goods and products flowing to and from France and Europe.

The income and taxes from slave-based sugar production became a major source of the French national budget. Each year over 600 vessels visited the ports of Haiti to carry its sugar, coffee, cotton, indigo, and cacao to European consumers.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

 

Enslaved Africans on Slave Ship

Netherlands

The Dutch West India Company, a chartered company of Dutch merchants, was established in 1621 as a  monopoly over the African slave trade to Brazil, the Caribbean and North America.

WIC had offices in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn, Middelburg and Groningen, but one-fourth of Africans transported across the Atlantic by the company were moved in slave ships from Amsterdam. Almost all of the money that financed slave plantations in Suriname and the Antilles came from bankers in Amsterdam, just as many of the ships used to transport slaves were built there.

Many of the raw materials that were turned into finished goods in Amsterdam, such as sugar and coffee, were grown in the colonies using slave labor and then refined in factories in the Jordaan neighborhood.

Revenue from the goods produced with slave labor funded much of The Netherlands’ golden age in the 17th century, a period renowned for its artistic, literary, scientific, and philosophical achievements.

Slave labor created vast sources of wealth for the Dutch in the form of precious metals, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, coffee and cotton and other goods, and helped to fund the creation of Amsterdam’s beautiful and famous canals and city center.

Source: humanityinaction.org

 

rescued slaves

Portugal

Portugal was the first of all European countries to become involved in the Atlantic slave trade.  From the 15th to 19th century, the Portuguese exported 4.5 million Africans as slaves to the Americas, making it Europe’s largest trafficker of human beings.

Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Portugal’s colony of Brazil, and sugar was the primary export from 1600 to 1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable market.

The large portion of the Brazilian inland where gold was extracted was known as the Minas Gerais (General Mines). Gold mining in this area became the main economic activity of colonial Brazil during the 18th century. In Portugal, the gold was mainly used to pay for industrialized goods such as textiles and weapons, and to build magnificent baroque monuments like the Convent of Mafra.

Source: wikipedia.org

Source: africaspeaks.com

 

slavery

Spain

Starting in 1492, Spain was the first European country to colonize the New World, where they established an economic monopoly in the territories of Florida and other parts of North America, Mexico, Trinidad, Cuba and other Caribbean islands. The native populations of these colonies were mostly dying from disease or enslavement, so the Spanish were forced to increasingly rely on African slave labor to run their colonies.

The money generated from these settlements created great wealth for the Hapsburg and Bourbon dynasties throughout Spain’s hold on the area. But it also attracted Spain’s European rivals, prompting Spanish rulers to spend the riches from the Americas to fuel successive European wars.

Spanish treasure fleets were used to protect the cargo transported across the Atlantic Ocean. The ships’ cargo included  lumber, manufactured goods, various metal resources and expensive luxury goods including silver, gold, gems, pearls, spices, sugar, tobacco leaf and silk.

Port cities in Spain flourished. Seville, which had a royal monopoly on New World trade, was transformed from a provincial port into a major city and political center.  Since the Spanish colonists were not yet producing their own staples such as wine, oil, flour, arms and leather, and had large financial reserves to pay for them, prices in Castile and Andalusia rose sharply as traders bought up goods to ship out.

Prices of oil, wine and wheat tripled between 1511 and 1539. The great vineyards of Jerez, the olive groves of Jaén, and the arms and leather industry of Toledo were established on their present scale during these years.

 

Source: wikipedia.org
Source: asp52.hubpages.com
Source: mygeologypage.ucdavis.edu

 

Source: https://atlantablackstar.com/2013/10/01/nations-that-benefited-the-most-from-enslaving-african-people/